1) The private pilot turned ATC who should’ve probably stayed a pilot. Has to explain in the moment why the crossing restriction you just gave is “tough”. submitted by
2) The bearded guy who spends too much time talking about breweries. Loves a baseball team a million miles away from your facility.
3) Old guy #1, ‘rule guy’. Has to point out every rule ever and when it’s not being followed.
4) NATCA BRO. No explanation needed.
5) Black chick #1 who axes like she’s a victim the moment she arrives at work. Never is assigned a challenging position.
6) Black chick #2, who everyone likes because they crush it at pot-lucks and is just an overall good person and controller
7) The ‘FAA is really not that bad’ guy who bids a supe job 1-2 years after making CPC.
8) The guy who blames every problem in the world on how bad TMU/TMC is. Goes down the drain fairly often.
9) The guy who is totally chill and normal but just hates that one facility / sector, who then yells out how bad they are that day.
10) The super religious guy who tries to blend in ::church activity whatever:: into a conversation that had nothing to do with religion.
11) The 57 minute break guy, who thinks they’re doing it to ‘screw the FAA’.
12) Old guy #2, who trains all.of.the.time, who ends up with the person who should’ve washed out but got certified thanks to good ole’ old guy #2
13) Old guy #3, who knows the exact date and time they hit eligibility, and has to promote this fact at least 3x a week.
14) Shift swap / leave guy - “hey man, would it be cool if” is how every text you’ll ever receive from them starts
15) Transfer guy. Came from somewhere, knows a little bit too much about NCEPT, will be gone in a year
16) Finance / side hustle guy. Can give you the oral history of each TSP fund for the last 10 years. Not only trades Bitcoin, but that new thing no one knows about.
17) My Last Facility Guy. Needs you to know every fucking thing about the last place they worked, and ‘wonders’ why ‘we’ can’t do it that way
18) White chick #1, with a 24/7 flirtatious attitude yet marries someone who has nothing to do with ATC
19) White chick #2, dates controllers from your facility, and other facilities, and maybe even that one retired guy
20) Quiet guy. You know nothing about him, no one does. But he’s been there for 10 years on the same strange RDOs. Seems nice.
21) Golf guy. Titleist hat, goes to driving range when it’s too fucking cold out, bids all their leave around golf outings to Phoenix or some old person retirement city with a golf trail.
22) Workout bro. Nah he doesn’t just do CrossFit, he mixes in cardio and ju jit su because there’s gotta be balance. Blows up the bathroom every shift.
23) Spanish guy. Yeah so what English is his third language and when he gives a re-route it’s painful for everyone involved. Dios mio.
24) The Certified Professional Traffic Dodger. Somehow knows when to short break or long break, knows who is up, knows where the weather might be. Gets super friendly with front lines who assign him ELMs during a weather event.
25) The savant. The guy who doesn’t get rattled, who you can count on to not fuck up. Gets off position after a nightmare session and starts playing their nintendo switch like nothing happened. You wonder if their pulse ever crossed 75.
What is Modafinil?
Modafinil is a eugeroic – or, simply, a wakefulness-promoting agent – with a primary purpose of combating narcolepsy amongst suffers. Eugeroics differ from other stimulants because they are considered relatively non-addictive. This means that they do not cause the typical side effects experienced with most stimulants, like agitation and nervousness.
Let us first discuss the chemical components of Modafinil. It is a racemic mixture, and such mixtures have equal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers. Enantiomers are the two forms in which large numbers of chemicals exist. Both forms are chemically and structurally identical, yet are nevertheless mirror images of the other. In other words, enantiomers are the ‘left’ and ‘right’ versions of a drug. These are called S and R enantiomers. One enantiomer is typically responsible for the majority of a drug’s effects, while the other can contribute to those positive effects. In other cases, the less dominant enantiomer can cause adverse side effects, or it be inert.
Interestingly Modafinil Most racemic mixtures are balanced equally. This means half of the mixture is ‘left’ enantiomer and the other half is ‘right’. Modafinil is an equal combination of its S- and R- enantiomers, meaning that both have a psychoactive function. Just as you sometimes need two hands to do a job correctly, Modafinil uses both of its enantiomers to provide the ideal effect on body and mind.
Preliminary scientific evidence has found that Modafinil works through histamine signaling. This phrase might indeed baffle you if you aren’t familiar with biological terminology. What this essentially means is that the histamine receptors, found for example in the central nervous system, are provoked. Michael J Minzenberg and Cameron S Carter’s journal provides ample scientific research on Modafinil’s neurochemical actions and effects.
Histamine acts a neurotransmitter, a chemical substance which is released at the end of a nerve fibre by the arrival of a nerve impulse. Neurotransmitters affect the transfer of the impulse to another nerve fibre, muscle fibre, or some other structure within the body. Modafinil enhances histamine activity by stimulating the central system. This increased activity therefore impacts other nerve fibres/muscle fibres in the body, accounting for its ability to stimulate a fatigued body.
As well as fighting tiredness, Modafinil also improves general mood and well-being amongst users, with positive improvements seen with mental focus, analytic capability and memory recall and retention.
Britain deems Modafinil a prescription-only drug. In America, meanwhile, Modafinil’s brand name is Provigil. It is considered a scheduled drug, meaning that it necessitates a prescription in order to obtain it legally.
What is Adrafinil?
Adrafinil is a pro-drug to Modafinil. This simply means that supplementation of it increases concentrations of Modafinil in the body. The liver changes Adrafinil to Modafinil.
Similarly to Modafinil, Adrafinil’s cognitive benefits are enhanced by noted improvements in day-time alertness, motivation, mood and energy levels. It also does not generate the irritability, anxiousness and nervousness routinely experienced through the use of other stimulants.
Britain does not measure Adrafinil under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, a legislation that governs the regulation of drugs. This means that it is not regulated. Adrafinil’s legal status and nootropics in general, nevertheless remains in grey area. It is lawful for purchase by British residents, but only for personal use. In the U.S, however, the drug is currently legal and can be bought, prescription free, as an alternative to Modafinil. Though its manufactured moniker Olmifon was discontinued in 2011, Adrafinil itself can still be purchased easily online.
Why do they differ?
Modafinil and Adrafinil are two of the most popular stimulants available. Though both offer similar if not identical cognitive benefits, there are key distinctions between both.
Chemically speaking, the structures of both drugs are very similar:
It is, however, with the body’s processing of each drug that differences become most apparent. Modafinil is processed through metabolic activity occurring mainly in the liver. Lesser contributions to the metabolising process are made through the activity of the enzyme cytochrome P450 (CYP). Cytochrome p-450 (often abbreviated “CYP”) is a class of enzymes that is involved in the metabolism of many medications and is located primarily in the liver.
But, what exactly are enzymes? They exist in living organisms and catalyze specific biochemical reactions within the body. At the beginning of a reaction process, molecules exist called ‘substrates’. The enzyme converts these into ‘products’. All metabolic processes in cells require enzymes to react within the body at rates fast enough to sustain life.
Adrafinil differs because it is changed into Modafinil in the liver. This means that it relies on greater enzyme activity to process correctly and efficiently.
The conversion process of Adrafinil and Modafinil sees the former breaking down into the latter as a compound. This is how it is metabolized. Enzymes are relied upon more during the metabolic process of Adrafinil. As mentioned briefly in the metabolism of Modafinil, the enzyme involved in metabolizing Adrafinil when it reaches the liver is Cytochrome p-450.
How quickly the liver is able to convert Adrafinil is dependent upon metabolic rate and the efficiency of the liver overall. Two people of the same sex, similar age and weight can take the same dose of Adrafinil but achieve very different results.
In necessitating a more rigorous metabolism process, the most profound difference between Modafinil and Adrafinil is that the latter requires the greater use of Cytochrome p-450. Over time, if the drug is not taken cyclically, such enzymes can build up in the liver with potentially damaging effects on the organ as a whole.
Adrafinil vs Modafinil Dosage
For Adrafinil, it as advised to dose between 600 to 1200mg per day. It is further advised, as with the majority of supplements, to begin on a low dose, only increasing the amount after recognizing your own body’s reaction and tolerance. Adrafinil should not be taken in the afternoon and evening to prevent a sleepless night. Ideally, it should be taken 3 times a week and for no longer than five months. This is primarily to prevent side effects, tolerance and the build-up of enzymes in the liver.
Examine.com state that Adrafinil’s recommended dosage range is vast, ranging from 600 to 1,200mg. BodhiSvaha on erowid.org explained their willingness to take both small doses and larger ones of Adrafinil:
After extensive experimentation with dosage, I have settled on taking 300mg when I wake up and another 300 mg in the early afternoon. There does not seem to be much, if any, habituation or tolerance created by Adrafinil. Occasionally I will take doses up to 1200 mg when a high degree of concentration is required. I have found this dose to be very effective at potentiating and improving the tryptamine experience, in particular. I find tryps sometimes bring a feeling of lethargy or body load with some cognitive dullness. Adrafinil counters this effect very nicely.
Here it is evident that, despite there being a large range of recommended doses for Adrafinil, all of them are safe. Whatever you choose within that range is dependent on your desired alertness and bodily tolerance. Reddit user ssitimefill explains the necessity of slowly upping Adrafinil dosage, as well as suggesting why a higher dose than Modafinil is required:
To my knowledge it is not established how what proportion of adrafinil is broken down into modafinil and what proportion into modafinilic acid. This proportion likely varies person to person, and also by dose. Some studies have reported adrafinil more potent at lower doses. The general psychological effect of adrafinil depends not only on the quantity converted into modafinil but the rate of this conversion. 300 mg of modafinil from adrafinil is not likely to produce an identical effect from 300 mg of modafinil. Basically there is no way to determine optimum dose of adrafinil other than trial and error. The best procedure is to start with low doses (measured via scale) and slowly increase dose until you reach the optimal, then sub-optimal dose. When you have reached sub-optimal dose (too much adrafinil) you can deduce what dose is optimal for you.
Because Modafinil does not transform in the liver, it generally requires lesser dosage to reach its optimum effect. Modafinil is typically sold in 100 mg or 200 mg tablets. The latter option is more popular due to its greater availability. 200 mg is indeed the recommended dose, to be taken once per day, usually during the morning. It may be taken with or without food. (nootriment.com)
Some recommend starting with an initial intake of 100 mg Modafinil dosage. This helps with accustoming the body to the drug itself. An anonymous writer
on erowid.org posted his first use of 100mg Modafinil, describing its positive effects:
And today I tried modafinil 100 mg for the first time. I took it at around 10:45 AM today and it is now 4:35 PM. My experience has been much like those of others herein described– initial buzziness (~1 hr after I took the pill) that lasted about as long. But for the past 4 hours, I have been just plain awake. I have not succumbed to the usual desire to take a nap in the afternoons despite the near-90-degree heat, which usually puts me right to sleep. I have had no such desire in fact. I am not jittery or having unusual thoughts, etc.
It is also possible to take higher doses. Up to 400 mg per day has been shown to be very well-tolerated. Pino on drugs-forum tried a variety of dosages and provides some succinct information of the results:
200 mg modafinil + caffeine: Pleasant vibe, easy and fast thinking. Able to solve sudokus a lot quicker. The bus driver becomes more self reassured in conversations and is able to focus more than 16 hours. Sleep quality is ok. (bp: 130/80) 200 mg modafinil + too much caffeine (4 cups of coffee): Anxiousness and some hypertension kicks in here. (bp: 140/93) Concentration is less than optimal in this region. 400 mg modafinil + normal caffeine: Nice euphoria, but can also turn into anxiousness.
It is clear that the recommended doses are speculative and dependent on personal accounts of drug use. There are certainly more user reviews around the internet that explain individual experiences of alternating dosage amounts. There is, of course, still the question of the differences in dosage between Modafinil and Adrafinil. Jjhurley on Reddit discussed the differences in dosage between both:
… most people tell me 300mg of adra is comparable to just 100mg of moda. Whether your ratio or this other ratio is correct doesn’t make too much a difference, but I have been taking 600mg of adra and don’t want to lose any potency. Is this to say I should go with 300-400mg of moda? If so, that’s a little upsetting because I was really hoping to have equal, if not better, experiences on just 200mg of moda.
ProfWiki agreed that Adrafinil should be taken in higher dosages than Modafinil:
I take 600 mg in order to get effects. This is equivalent to about 200 mg of modafinil. I think throwf0 read you as saying modafinil since he mentioned modafinil. Modafinil is a lot stronger than adrafinil. 150 mg of adrafinil would be about like 50 mg of adrafinil. Anyway, like I said, 50 mg of Adrafinil is far too lose to be effective. 50 mg of MODAfinil might work okay for some but they typically are just breaking up a standard 100/200 mg dose. Being that Adrafinil works by metabolizing into Modafinil, and that as a rule of thumb 1/3 of Adrafinil turns into modafinil, a 50 mg dose of Adrafinil would be just roughly 16-17 mg of modafinil. There wouldn’t be any effects from such a low level dose.
Adrafinil vs Provigil
Let us first make one distinction:
Adrafinil = generic drug Provigil = brand name of Modafinil
It is often questioned what the difference between Provigil and Adrafinil is. However, the former is simply a branded name for the generic drug Modafinil, which, as we have now found, is the metabolite of Adrafinil. So long as users are acquiring pure generic versions of Adrafinil, then the same effects as Provigil will be felt and the advised dosage will essentially be identical.
It is therefore not unusual for potential users to question the differences between Provigil and Adrafinil. Moreover, it is certainly not unreasonable to question their differences. For instance, internet user Shatneresque questioned the difference between Modafinil and Provigil, which are the same drug, asking:
My pharmacy sent me a email saying I can now replace my Provigil ($125 a month) with the generic version and they need my okay to do so. Before I say yes and say the money, I want to know if anyone has noticed any differences. I am very happy with the provigil and have been taking it for several years.
This query was answered by Serpens:
It appears that Cephalon, the maker of Provigil, has been purchased by Teva, titan generic manufacturer. There are currently three manufacturers selling a generic labeled ‘modafinil’ : Cephalon (brand holder), Teva, and Par. All three are using the same brand name NDA license on file with the FDA. In addition, Elsevier’s Clinical Pharmacology has images and references available for the generic product being shipped for all three drug companies. They’re all the same pill. Images of all three products show a white oblong tablet with “Provigil” on one side, and the strength on the other. All products have the same inactive ingredients.
Queries like this prove that caution is imperative when deciding on which supplement to use. This is especially true if you are a first time user or are, like Shatneresque, accustomed to using one particular brand such as Provigil. Researching alternatives and finding the most information about whatever drug you are choosing is vital if you are to select the right one for you. Awareness is the key and there is no harm in asking questions that, to you, may sound obvious once they are answered.
Provigil was originally manufactured by Cephalon, the same company behind the previously branded version of Adrafinil (Olmifon). Business editor Dell Poncet writes of how, in 1999, interest for both Cephalon and Provigil was taking off, with registered quarterly sales of $10.7 million. Being among the leading biopharmaceutical companies in the world, Cephalon flourished. In 2011, it was acquired by Teva, the largest generic drug manufacturer in the world for a huge $6.8 billion (read more here). There is little surprise, then, that Provigil is sold at quite a cost.
A 30-day supply of Provigil 200mg pills can cost as much as $1500. Buyers in the UK can therefore expect to pay even more if the pharmacy offers world-wide shipping.
Since branded Modafinil is so expensive, Adrafinil is clearly the best alternative. The latter drug does not come attached to a manufactured title, and is inexpensive yet easily attainable. What is more, it can be bought prescription-free online or by phone. There are plenty of legitimate outlets stocking Adrafinil and these can be accessed at the click of a button. If economizing is one aspect of importance, then Adrafinil is certainly the best choice.
Modafinil in India
More importantly health-wise, though, is the scary possibility of purchasing a dodgy-version of branded Modafinil online. With the cost of Provigil being so high, it is unsurprising that many prospective users look for a cheaper alternative for their first time trying the drug. Many turn to the internet’s grey market, where there is a lingering risk of being ripped off with tampered drugs. This is where extra caution and care should be applied.
Once users began contemplating off-label equivalents, international pharmacy websites quickly took the opportunity to sell these kinds of drugs. The most popular location from which many internet users buy unbranded Modafinil is India. Sources of the drug in India do not require strict quality control, nor are prescriptions required by users.
In fact, there is much information to be considered with regard to India’s counterfeit drugs market. This article on New York Times discusses how:
India’s drug industry is one of the country’s most important economic engines, exporting $15 billion in products annually, and some of its factories are world-class, virtually undistinguishable from their counterparts in the West. But others suffer from serious quality control problems. The World Health Organization estimated that one in five drugs made in India are fakes. A 2010 survey of New Delhi pharmacies found that 12 percent of sampled drugs were spurious.
Meanwhile, this article on safemedsonline.org attests to the New York Times’ discussion, stating that:
The Food and Drug Administration recently conducted a series of raids in India to uncover counterfeit drugs. The raids yielded large quantities of substandard medicines and resulted in several arrests. However, in India, the penalties for making and selling counterfeit medicines are minimal, the convictions are rare, and the profits are enormous. Since the raids late last year, the problem has only gotten worse.
Alarm bells should definitely ring here. Without quality control, many drugs that appear on international websites do not contain legitimate ingredients. It is a huge gamble to assume your purchased pills are pure or authentic. There’s a great possibility that you might not experience the proper effects of the medication and there is serious potential that you may have toxic reactions to the ingredients in fake versions of the drug. Some websites and online Nootropics communities maintain lists of verified and trustworthy Modafinil vendors, but such vendors do not generally stay on the lists for long. In many cases, a trusted supplier can end up sending out a fake or ineffective batch of pills even after you have developed a long-standing relationship with them. It is almost impossible to protect against this risk.
There is really only one sensible alternative if you find the price of Provigil unreasonable, or if you are contemplating buying potentially contaminated off-label versions from India. Users should purchase Adrafinil from a reputable supplier instead, rather than paying the very serious costs of purchasing from an unreliable source abroad.
Adrafinil vs Modafinil forum
There are many reviews across the internet on individual preferences: Adrafinil or Modafinil. It is all, of course, subjective to user experience. Whilst some remain skeptical towards the newer of the two drugs, Adrafinil, there are huge amounts of successful reviews to be considered. On reddit, jjhurley writes:
Long story short, today is just my 3rd day using adrafinil and I’m impressed with the results so far. I keep reading from people who’ve experienced both adra & moda is that they prefer modafinil. To me it is surprising there would be a whole lot of difference given what we know about adrafinil converting to modafinil once in your system. I understand the conversion takes time but I wouldn’t think that to make a significant impact to different effects.
It is also important to remember that Adrafinil is converted into Modafinil once in the liver. Many users therefore experience the same results with both drugs, and are positive in their opinions of both. DoyouknowmyPW on Reddit concurs, stating that:
I’ve been using Adrafinil and Modafinil for a few weeks now during the workweek. 100-150mg for Modafinil, 200-270 for Adrafinil. I’ve never noticed any painful side-effects, might just be a coincidence. Sharp pain like that could be trapped gas (of course I am not a physician though!). It does help greatly staying more alert during the day. Before I would have issues some days where I am truly struggling to keep my eyes open, especially during meetings. I’ve fallen asleep at least twice for a brief second because my eyes were just too heavy. Since I’ve been taking the morning dose that sleepiness has gone away and I am now on a better sleep schedule because I feel tired when I’m suppose to.
Some users speak of branded versions of the drugs. For example, Akoward on drugs-forum writes:
Recently got a hold of some Nuvigil. Have had previous experience with Olmifon (Adrafinil). As has been said before its much more potent at lower dose that Adrafinil. I only need 1/2 a pill to do what 2x300mg Adrafinils were doing for me. I took a whole Nuvigil the first time and was more productive in that single day that I had been in ages. Got all my work done, worked on personal projects… it was amazing. I will say that some of the physical side effects were a little troubling (ever present tightness in the collarbone to middle neck area, massive restless legs)
It is important to see that with Akoward’s review, despite him alternating to the branded Armodafinil, side-effects were still experienced. This goes to show that Adrafinil, though not manufactured under a moniker, is no less competent in generating the excellent results that might be expected from those drugs which sound more ‘professional’.
Adrafinil vs Modafinil vs Armodafinil
Like Adrafinil and Modafinil, Armodafinil is a stimulant used to combat fatigue. Introduced in 2007, Armodafinil appears under brand names such as Nuvigil, Artvigil, and Waklert. It is purportedly more effective at lower doses than its relatives Adrafinil and Modafinil.
Armodafinil is an enantiopure drug. Enantiopure drugs contain only one of the enantiomers (spoken about earlier), R or S. The R enantiomer is longer acting and is most responsible for the effects of Modafinil specifically. Since the S enantiomer is not as strong, Armodafinil’s dosage is therefore lower. Most doses are 150mg compared to Modafinil’s 200mg standard dose.
Whilst the effects last for roughly the same time, Armodafinil takes longer to reach its peak than Modafinil, and therefore even longer than Adrafinil. This is simply because the S enantiomer reacts and leaves the body faster. Remember, Armodafinil does not have the S enantiomer, whereas Modafinil does. Adrafinil does, too, because Modafinil is a component within it. Because of this, users find that the effects of Armodafinil take longer to make themselves apparent – a potential disadvantage for prospective users.
So, how is Armodafinil processed? Dopamine is a compound existing as neurotransmitter within the body. It is also precursor of other substances including adrenaline. Armodafinil is an indirect dopamine receptor agonist. What this essentially means, then, is that Armodafinil provokes the dopamine levels in the body.
Armodafinil is metabolized in much the similar way as Modafinil. It relies on amide hydrolysis primarily, and enzyme activity from by cytochrome P450 secondly. Amide Hydrolysis refers to the reaction with water of amides – a compound)
As a consequence, this means that is does not rely as much on heavy enzyme activity in the liver. Adrafinil does. This presents further difference that may be considered by potential users. However, it is important to remember to stick to dosage guidance. If taken properly, and often cyclically, Adrafinil is no more threatening to the liver than Modafinil or Armodafinil.
Because Armodafinil, Modafinil and Adrafinil are all very similar in terms of effect, there is much discussion about which is the best. With regard to Modafinil and Armodafinil specifically, some may assume that because small dosages are needed for the latter that it is more efficient. However, it is important to remember individual sensitivity levels. Different drugs can have different reactions for different people. Potency is therefore not the only factor; the personal experience of using either Armodafinil or Modafinil is equally important. A trial and error approach may be necessary, but, of course, extensive research to find the best possible supplement for you is paramount.
In undertaking research, then, you may discover information that suits your needs. For example, it is proposed that, unlike Modafinil, Armodafinil will not actually disturb your existing sleep patterns. Modafinil users might agree a good night’s sleep is difficult to achieve depending on the dosage.
Reddit user guitar1560 states that
I took 50mg two days in a row twice. Couldn’t sleep well the second night both times
Whereas SequenceConvenience writes
I’ve experienced pretty strong sleep changes while taking modafinil, but nothing that has been negative. I actually seem to need less sleep, at least in the sense that it is very easy for me to get out of bed the day after taking modafinil. Then again, I also don’t seem to have much in the way of dreams during those nights.
Armodafinil does not impact sleep pattern. However, with SequenceConvenience’s review, it is clear that some find this a positive effect of Modafinil while others, like guitar1560, may be disappointed.
Respective costs of the drugs might further influence your decision. KimberCT on Longe City tried both Armodafinil and Modafinil, but was swayed somewhat by the price of Nuvigil (the branded name of Armodafinil):
Currently taking 250mg armodafinil daily. To be honest, I kind of prefer modafinil. It seems to have a little more of a quick kick to it. Probably that isomer with a short half life peaking. Other than that, I can’t tell the difference between Nuvigil and modafinil (Sun Pharma). I’d probably have continued taking modafinil, but Cephalon has jacked the price since Nuvigil was FDA approved. With an Rx, Provigil is twice the price of Nuvigil. Their way of getting everyone onto Nuvigil before Provigil’s patent expires.
Adrafinil, meanwhile, can be obtained very cheaply online because it does not exist under a manufactured name. Nevertheless, many of these drugs are safe to use even if they lack a moniker like Provigil or Nuvigil. To stop concerns of the legitimacy of your purchased drug, always ask that your online manufacturer provides a COA (Certificate of Authenticity) on demand. This means that the substance batch has undergone a third-party laboratory analysis to ensure that your purchased drug matches its label and is not contaminated.
A common side-effect of Adrafinil is that the urine can smell different after ingestion of the drug. This is because one of Adrafinil’s metabolites contains a sulphur-based compound, and sulphur is strong smelling in itself.
However, these criticisms are not limited to Adrafinil alone and it should not sway potential users away from this particular drug. Modafinil has also been found to change the odor of urine. For example, PhysicsMaestro on Longe city queries:
I’ve been using modafinil (modalert) for about 8 months now, and regularly noticed a distinct smell of my urine whenever taking it. However, with this armodafinil, I don’t seem to notice it, which worries me a bit (i.e., not really what it states to be). Has anyone else noticed this difference between armodafinil and modafinil? I thought maybe the S-enantiomer could be metabolized and excreted quicker, thus resulting in an early onset smell, but I am just guessing.
The difference could easily be due to one of the excipients of the tablet, not the active ingredient. It’s also possible that only the S-enantiomer causes the smell, and of course, there’s the possibility that either these pills or the old ones didn’t actually contain modafinil. Sometimes they contain caffeine or dimethylamylamine or other stimulants, either mixed with modafinil or completely replacing it.
PhysicsMaestro thereafter concurrs:
I thought the odorous urine was ubiquitous to all variants of modafinil, resulting from its metabolites. But I guess the smell could be dependent on the enantiomer. I am willing to assume that whatever enzyme metabolizes modafinil to modafinil acid would leave its chirality intact. I don’t think it would be the excipients since the smell is so widely reported with different sources (and the modafinil has a sulfiyl group, so)
Nor does Armodafinil escape the urine issues. An anonymous writer
on Erowid.org wrote:
Oh, and the pill tastes awful. Don’t let it get stuck in your mouth. And my pee starts to smell like it, too, but I get used to it
It is therefore important not to be selective of criticism based on what drug you have been swayed by. If you read that Modafinil is apparently “safer” because it does not rely on rampant enzyme activity, then do remember to include other issues such as cost-efficiency and, of course, other side-effects that might become more apparent than rare liver problems. These side-effects might include nausea, chest-pain or a faster heart rate (nhs.uk).
Adrafinil stands out as the most cost-effective, and, though it has been reported to alter urine odor, it is not alone. Modafinil, the more expensive, and Armodafinil, with a longer reaction time, also generate similar side-effects.
As well as reviews on specific effects of Adrafinil, Armodafinil or Modafinil, there are plenty of general overviews to be found around the internet. On Reddit, BitcoinOperatedGirl
writes of her experience:
I tried the adrafinil first, starting with a low dose of 200mg one morning. I prepared a capsule and put it in a baggie next to my pillow before I went to sleep. When my alarm clock rang in the morning, I swallowed the capsule, silenced the alarm clock, and went back to sleep. I was expecting the stimulatory effect to eventually wake me up, as a caffeine pill would, but I ended up sleeping for two more hours. I felt a little disappointed after getting up and not feeling any stimulation, so I decided to add an extra 400mg to the mix. The rest of the day, I was in a fairly good mood. I thought that I was maybe a little more energetic and motivated than usual. I was fairly productive and I worked out. The effect wasn’t what I expected, however. I’ve read people on here talking about feeling wired, and “laser beam focus”, but a whole 600mg of adrafinil felt nothing close to what I imagined (I guess I imagined it would feel like a mild dose of ritalin or something). On the upside, I experienced no substantial anxiety, whereas all the amphetamine-like drugs make me very uncomfortably anxious (I really can’t stand them, they feel disgusting to me). I didn’t really feel a crash and I went to bed at my normal hour. I’m experimenting with adrafinil again today. I took 800mg this time. I was feeling particularly tired this morning (cripplingly tired, lethargic really). I definitely feel more energetic now. I’ve gotten some work done, I’m feeling the drive to write walls of text on reddit and I’m going to have a workout in a few minutes. I don’t expect to have any motivational issues today. Maybe I’ll even cook something fun. Only unfortunate side-effect seems to be a mild headache, but advil seems to be taking care of that. I also tried armodafinil a week ago. Took a small 75mg dose in the morning. Same setup as with adrafinil. I also fell back to sleep for 2 hours. I felt pretty anxious that day and also got a headache. I can’t quite be sure the armodafinil is to blame but I suspect it is. Seems much more anxiety-inducing than adrafinil, which is unfortunate given that it seems adrafinil is worse for your liver. Armodafinil is probably just not for me.
Nezxon on LongeCity meanwhile states that:
I’m taking 75mg Adrafinil (Olmifon) twice daily and I haven’t experienced any side effects. I’d like to give Armodafinil a try, perhaps even safer in the long-term than Modafinil is.
These kinds of reviews certainly help to build a solid picture of each drug’s story. Undertaking research like this to decide on which drug is preferable to you is definitely something you should embark on before picking at random a supplement based on one review.
Adrafinil vs Modafinil reddit
The only notable difference in reviews between Modafinil and Adrafinil is that the latter takes longer to take effect. For example, justmodz1 stated that:
adrafinil is the precursor of modafinil in that it came first and led to the discovery of modafinil in fact adrafinil turns into modafinil in the body due to breakdown of it molecules which actually means that the two have the same effects but adrafinil takes longer to take effect.
While KPC100 agreed that:
Adrafinil gets turned into Modafinil in your system. Because of this, you need a much larger dose and it takes longer to take effect.
Although it does have a longer reaction time, this certainly shouldn’t be a downfall of Adrafinil. It is simply a case that Adrafinil’s chemical processing takes a little longer. However, once complete, the results are just as effective as those found with Modafinil. Take into consideration, also, that Adrafinil will certainly stimulate, energize and ultimately shake you awake. The seemingly longer period of time before this happens will soon become irrelevant when the benefits are reaped. Further Reddit reviews compare other aspects of Adrafinil and Modafinil.
Jjhurley, commenting on the actual nature of each drug, states that:
I keep reading from people who’ve experienced both adra & moda is that they prefer modafinil. To me it is surprising there would be a whole lot of difference given what we know about adrafinil converting to modafinil once in your system. I understand the conversion takes time but I wouldn’t think that to make a significant impact to different effects.
While the same user goes on to discuss issues of costing, in the end suggesting that, in terms of price, they would definitely prefer Adrafinil:
I was really hoping to have equal, if not better, experiences on just 200mg of moda. The reason I’d like to not take more than that is simply cost. At $1.50-2.00 per 200mg pill of moda (prices based off the quantities I’d be ordering as well as variation in supplier prices) it’s too costly to have to take twice that for my own personal budget. To be honest, even at $1.50-2.00 per pill/200mg is already high for my budget. I can get 50g of adrafinil for $98 which comes out to up to 50% cheaper a single moda dose/pill of 200mg. If conversion ratios are right and I’d need two pills or 400mg of moda though then my adra would be 75% cheaper.
There are plenty of important aspects to consider when choosing between Modafinil or Adrafinil. Firstly, selecting the safest and most reliable drug should be of paramount interest. Whereas Adrafinil is often tested by third parties and is shipped nationally rather than across sees, Modafinil (both branded and unbranded versions) is often left untested and sent from India. Quality control is a big issue of concern for international pharmacies and should definitely guide your final decision.
Pricing is also important to consider. Although you might think you’re getting a better deal by choosing a cheaper off-label version from India, it is still not as easy to buy Modafinil as it is Adrafinil. Most venders of Modafinil do not accept Paypal. This service offers secure buyer protection. With the option of a legitimate, nationally supplied alternative in Adrafinil, it is illogical to risk your bank account details instead – just to purchase a drug that will likely be contaminated and unsafe
Hello fellow farmers and farmees. I have been playing the planetmans since beta. I have lurked the reddit hard for some years now. I have also been creating and writing a fanfic or Lore story for the game we all love to hate. I decided to drop it here to see what kind of feedback I can gain in respect to my writing style, Lore content, story feel. Overall I would be interested in knowing if anyone is interested in this type of story. I have 2 chapters completed so far. I will finish this story. This story is basically my love letter to the Devs and players that make planetside 2 possible. Sorry for the wall of text, if I cannot format well. submitted by
Alert Zero: A Planetside Love story
It was just another day. I (Coreh, a member of the illustrious nation of earth known as the Terran Republic, standing 5’5” and just turning into my 30’s with an athletic body from boot camp workouts that thankfully hides my nerdy interior) woke up, felt the icy cold steel on my toes, as it tingled the hairs up my legs. I looked into the mirror as the lights slowly dimmed on, activated by my presence and movement.
“Ugh… why did I choose this again?” I grumbled to myself staring into my cold green eyes. This was my daily waking routine. Get up, get cold, grumble about my choices. “Oh ya, it wasn’t a choice…”
“Welcome to Auraxis, they said. So much opportunity so many career choices, so much to discover…” I proclaimed in my head the ads I heard as I awoke from the hyper sleep chamber upon entry into new galactic space. I can still remember the Terran Republic Military Officials shuffling everyone into the Awakening chambers to get people adjusted after coming out of such a long, deep, sleep. It was basically as if being in a coma, that type of sleep. We were awake in our own little dream worlds being sustained by a nutritional jelly goo for however many years have passed. I can’t recall. 100’s, maybe 1000’s or even tens of thousands of years have passed since I left Earth to start anew in some distant far off galaxy. Our age was not affected as the jelly goo kept us in a state of perfect animated reanimation, or something like that, I still look like I did when I signed up for this voyage. This of course was spearheaded by a group of commanders of TR, The Terran Republic. Yep, the good ole TR. Essentially they are Earth and what Earth stands for. Gone are the days of countries and cities being controlled by individual makers for personal benefits. Lo and behold after a few charismatic speeches and a few battles that ravaged our blue marble of a planet. People came together. I don’t mean like-minded people either, I mean the whole world came together. It was globally decided that we would become a world power. A world people. We became the Terran Republic! Everything else about this eventful time of history gets foggy and political which didn’t interest me in the time before embarking on this voyage of discovery and hope. Anyways, what was I doing again…
I run my hand through my blonde, fading blonde, sometimes dirty blonde, maybe its red hair now?... whatever… as I walk to the washroom 5metres from my bed.
“It’s important to know your distances they said” I repeat the words as I make a military salute to the mirror. I proceed to drain my body of its fluids built in the night.
'That was a good piss' I think to myself. I pause, and stare down into the urinal bowl. They still make them the same way as back on Earth. I wonder if that will ever change. Of course now they are more in tune to the way they were in Japan with the fancy buttons that make the water squirt up and tickle your butt. Heck it will even sing a song from the top 10 radio list if you want it to. I mused over the toilet singing as I dropped an imaginary load into it. I smile. I enter the kitchen area and begin making toast. I tell the kitchen-computer what kind of bread I want and it is created “Wheat bread, lightly toasted”. I then tell the computer how to prepare it for me “No Butter with lots of blueberry and strawberry jam”. Within a couple nano-cycles, its finished. The jam isn’t real it just has a similar flavouring to it.
“3 minute fresh made bread turned toast” I proclaim to myself as I hold the toast up in the air before promptly chewing off the crust and eating inward.
“Telecast on” I say loudly. The wall shimmers, then flashes, a bright glow declaring it has been turned to the ‘on mode’. A steady stream of images showing the news highlights mixed with a sports ticker running along the bottom. Bitcoin down another 10000% it shows me in a side bar. Certs are always rising, now up to a percentage too dumb to say. It’s the known currency now.
“Certs…certs? Who would have thought that Certs would become the global currency?” I shake my head, and look away as if I can spiritually feel my Bitcoin bank account shriveling up. An ad for Nanite Systems newest and hottest gizmo gadget pops up on screen.
‘Someday I’ll be able to afford one of those’ I think to myself as I turn away and walk to the bedroom to get dressed.
I wait at the bus stop. I feel the cool warmth, due to the two moons that orbit around and one large sun that this planet orbits, the weather can get a little strange. ‘Lots of clouds today’ I think to myself looking up into the grey-red sky. I recall how the environment scientists said one day a part of this Auraxis ocean completely dried up and receded, much like my hairline. They, and I mean the Scientist groups for the TR, immediately flocked to the scene and began digging around in the coral and sea-beds. They found some gigantic bones and even some strange structures. I recall seeing on a panel display at the lab, there was an important broadcast which interrupted my science data mine and they focused in on this large coral type object that was spewing a kind of red smoke into the air. It was not radioactive nor was it hot, they said it wasn’t steam either. I can’t quite put my finger on what it was, but I vaguely remember it being a plasma or energy. It reminded me of a computer game that was popular some time ago wherein three warring factions of alien nature would mine minerals and require a vesper gas, haha, good times. I smirk to myself as I stand along the city roadway. Ad Hoc type buildings are positioned on either side of the street. The buildings all look pretty much the same with minor differences. Military structures that were quick to put up and easy to maintain. Some are living quarters, others are used as makeshift restaurants or businesses. All grey, all boring, all TR. I look around myself.
“She’s not here yet…?” I mutter and look at the hologram display emitting from my watch. The sky has become cloudless and bright as the two moons sink over the horizon giving way to the bright and dominant orange star we now call our Sun. I kick my shoes onto the sidewalk metal in anticipation that she shows up and notices the cool new green and blue tie I have on. I straighten my tie and look at the hologram and shift my weight around my feet, giving a slow twist to my ankles.
“Hey Coreh!” a female voice yells down the street. I look up, and shrug.
“Oh hey bra.” I say with less satisfaction had it been someone else instead. The girl that yelled is my good friend on this planet, Brit. She is running full on to the bus stop, her brown hair joyfully twisting in the air and wind around her. Little sparkles of colour; purples, pinks, and blues, come to life in her hair as it moves in the sunlight. She’s wearing a long jacket that hides her figure. Though her heaving bosom does not hide so easily. We once had a thing, but it was very passing and not serious. We had kissed before and I got some boob in hand, I did find out she was a full handed 34DD bust, and her big lips did make for some good kisses, here, there and everywhere, I smile a sad smile to myself because I never did actually get to the everywhere part. She is almost my height I’d say she was 5’5”. Her round lightly tanned face has a very caring demeanor to it, which makes her eyes seem very full and alive. She is full of energy and bothers me to no end these days. A doctor by trade here on Auraxis. She’s a good friend, but annoying.
Brit catches my eyes glancing to her bouncing chest. She glares at me then pulls her hand into a fist and pelts me on the arm. She smiles. “What time did you get here today? Don’t tell me you came early to make a good impression on the new girl that moved into the area, huh?!” Brit prods me with questions and puts on a show of me fake impressing with head tilts and small toothy smiles, waving her hands and making strongman arm motions to show off bicep and tricep muscles while twirling to show off as if that’s what I would do to impress someone. For the record I wouldn’t.
“No..no, it’s not... ya” I stammer to try and hide my words, but I can’t hide from my friend Brit. She smiles her ‘I know everything smile’ and punches me in the arm, again.
“Ow...” I replied dully. My eyes glancing at her and back at the impact site where Brit punched me. I rub my shoulder as if to magically heal it with a soothing motion.
“Oh be quiet you big baby!” Brit snaps back at me. “It’s nothing some Nanites can’t fix!” she says while closing her eyes with a large toothy smile and pointing her finger into the air like she just solved a riddle.
I look over at Brit and stick out my tongue and squint my eyes. I am overcome with that feeling of being a kid trying to be mad, but not really mad. I amuse myself with the thought. I stare off into nothingness and sigh as if I wasted my time by being here so early. I run my hand through my short hair, and give it a shake. I ponder if I’m going to go bald, with all this anxiousness of the new girl. A few vehicles go by, and an airship slowly pulls into its landing zone. The airships or ‘AirBus’ are based off an old fighter jet technology, that has been greatly improved upon since its creation, wherein the thrusters are capable of moving into a downward thrust as well as horizontal. I think it was called a ‘Harrier Jump Jet’, but it has been awhile since I cared about old Earth history and technology. These ‘AirBus’ are codenamed as ‘Valkyries’. I take one more long look down the dusty red-brown roadway, no she isn’t here today I guess. I let out a breath of air that I was holding in anticipation, just in case I saw her.
“Here comes the bus! Coreh! Coreh!? Hey get your head out of the clouds!” Brit yells at me two inches from my face. I can feel the cool mint of her breath on my cheek.
I snap out of my own head “Oh, ya…” I say wispily.
The Sunderer pulls up. It’s a bus that is built like a tank with huge steel panels and 6 wheels that look like they can survive a rocket volley from a Mossie, the Ace Fighter of the skies for the TR. I wanted to fly a Mossie ever since I knew about them. Shaped almost like an insect from Earth they say. A large caliber Heavy Machine Gun was mounted to the nose right under the cockpit. It looks like a straw, kind of. I heard it gets its namesake from that aspect. I guess they had these bugs or insects on Earth that would suck your blood dry if you gave them the chance. They would attack in swarms and completely drain a person of all their internal fluids. Scary times on that old dirt ball. The Mosquito, one of the scariest things I’ve ever heard of.
Thanks for reading! This is but a small sample of what I have actually written so far. My bad if I dumped too much at once.
What is Bitcoin? I’m quite tired of seeing the various answers, misinformation and overly technical jargon (let alone the mockery) around this question. There is no reason Bitcoin should not take off. To that end, I want to help answer the question “What is Bitcoin?” Before I do though, I think people need to really focus on who the audience is, as far to often this question is answered with how it works, how it was developed, who is Satoshi, etc.. So I propose that go forward we focus on what the question really is until the general population understands it. With that in mind, for those with knowledge of Bitcoin to really consider what the layman is asking when responding. I propose that the layman will better understand what Bitcoin is if the answers to other Bitcoin questions are not buried in the answer to “what is Bitcoin?”.
a. What is Bitcoin? b. How does Bitcoin work - for the laymen? (ie: How do I get a wallet and use it) c. How does Bitcoin work - for the techy developer? (ie: What happens behind the scenes on your hardrive.) d. Who invented Bitcoin? e. How do I buy Bitcoin? (see b. above)
The questions could go on, however I believe until the layman understands simply what Bitcoin is (question a.) and not the other upper level class questions (questions b. –e.), it will not be understood or accepted. The following is my informal attempt to answer question a.
Bitcoin was a puzzle to me for about a year. I had picked up bits and pieces of what it was, how it worked, how to get a wallet, etc.. For that year, I never got my head wrapped around it. I finally sat down and read up on the history of it and then I realized how simply amazing and transparent it really was. It answered several questions I had while studying finance, in addition to creating the platform for what I consider to be one of greatest potential efficiencies of our time….a single global accounting general ledger. Imagine if every monetary transaction was tracked in one ledger (accountants start drooling….)
By way of background, I am an accountant and have dealt with GAAP/IFRS/Tax reporting in multiple currencies in various countries. What always bothered me was why for accounting we never spoke the same language (note there is a current convergence movement happening right now around GAAP/IRFS) and in a common currency. Obviously borders create issues around tax, but at least for financial reporting we can have one set of rules. Translating currencies also provides added complexity to reporting that might be eliminated. I also never quite accepted the concept of interest for risk and “value creation”, especially if you believe in one of the fundamental laws of physics (I know…its getting weird..but read on).
So here is some food for thought before I answer “What is Bitcoin”.
- As any first year accounting major knows debits and credits must equal zero. So if we added up all the debits and credits (assets and liabilities/equity) for all the companies, people, governments and other entities in the world…I mean everyone..then they would all offset and equal…..ZERO. The reason we can’t do that goes far beyond this statement, but two of the main reasons are differing sets of ledgers and the world operates in multiple currencies (set aside differing year ends, private companies, access to records, people who don’t account, etc.).
- As any first year finance major knows, the value of money is found in the governments who support it (I’ll come back to this) and purportedly, the USD is supported by gold at Fort Knox. We all know that is not the case and when the theoretical fall of Rome (US) happens, we won’t all be able to line up at Fort Knox and trade our greenbacks for little pieces of gold to put in our pockets and take with us as we sail across the ocean to trade with other countries. The US dollar and other currencies are supported by the fact that the people of a given country (call it a community) acknowledge it is an ‘I owe you’ for goods or services in the future. That simple. Not gold..but a promise to take back that piece of paper (US Dollar) and give up a chicken, goat, widget..whatever…at some point in the future.
- Where did money come from in the first place? Who got the first dollar? Let’s say Bob got the first dollar. So what did Bob give up for that first dollar..a goat? Some gold he found. Great..so Bob walked over to Doug and said, “Hey Doug, I’ll give you this gold for that ‘I owe you’ piece of paper?”. That doesn’t sound right. So how did it go down. Did the government just print a bunch of ‘I owe you’s’ (ie: dollar bills) and distribute them equally amongst the people? Did the people just accept it as something valuable? Where was the gold to back up its value? How did that gold get into the governments hands to support the value of those dollar bills? What did the government have to give up for the gold…certainly not dollar bills as you can’t put the cart before the horse?
- Who cares about the national debt! It’s just a giant payable on the ledger of the US government. Somewhere though another country has a giant receivable (aka China). Well certainly the US must also have a giant receivable from other countries that once we collect we can pay our debt? At the end of the day..none of it matters! It’s like a perpetual loan….if you never settle it or it never comes due, then it just keeps growing and growing. And guess what, when you add up all the payables and receivables of all the people, countries, entities, etc. in the world…they offset eachother. So unless we default on our debt, it really means nothing. Even if we did default, then what….well personally, maybe they take a car away, but if you are the US government, then what…they take your country away? No..you go into a workout group…you pay off what you can and get it forgiven…restructure.
- Interest rates have always had me a bit stumped. I did great in finance and mathematics, however I never quite understood the concept of interest rates. I get the concept of creating value. For example, I might only give up one chicken for some milk and another chicken for some powdered chocolate, but I you offered me chocolate milk…I might pay 3 chickens. So value creation is the increase in value created by combining goods or services to receive more in trade than if the components of the goods or services were traded for on an individual basis prior to being combined. Sounds great…right? I’m willing to pay more for a product whose whole is worth than the sum of its parts? Let me propose this - energy is neither created or lost, only transferred. It’s a fundamental principal of physics. So with that in mind, if I can measure the effort that goes into creating that great combined product, shouldn’t I only be willing to pay for the inputs to it? For example, one chicken for the milk, one chicken for the powdered chocolate and how much for the effort of combining them? Well if energy is neither lost or created, then the effort is measurable by the food the person put in their mouth that was converted to the energy used to mix the chocolate milk drink. Let’s say it was the equivalent of an apple. So if I’m paying three chickens for this combined product, I’m really paying that third chicken in exchange for the energy of an apple. Seems a little overpriced? That’s because it is! I propose that value creation is really the result of unfair trades and the inability to measure everything (for various reasons). So in theory, if everything was perfectly measured and no unfair trades ever took place, then I ask this…why do we need interest rates? Some will say that interest rights are the premium for being given something in exchange for having to pay it back in the future, including the risk it might not be repaid. That sounds pretty good and up to Finance 101 standards. I can buy that, if someone is willing to pay for it, but I ask, in the grand scheme of things (the answer is 42), did that act of lending that chicken today in exchange for getting a chicken back next week really result in the creation of more chicken? Should I have to give two chickens a week from now as a penalty for having received the one chicken today on loan? Some say yes, some say no…my only point is some would say this is an unfair trade and in a world where no energy is created or lost, the only variable here is time….so should the borrower really have to pay for that. He is giving back the same amount of energy he received (welcome to my brain).
So now that I dragged you through that, this is my answer to “What is Bitcoin?”……
BITCOIN IS A GLOBAL CASH BASED ACCOUNTING LEDGER (aka: A CHECK BOOK) THAT EVERYONE CAN SEE, HOWEVER THE IDENTITIES OF ACCOUNT HOLDERS ARE MASKED AS A SET OF NUMBERS AND LETTERS.
It really is that simple. How it works is a different beast as far as how everyone can see it, but again, that is not what I want to answer here. So if you accept my definition, then quite simply think about it like going to the bank and looking through all their accounts. You can see which accounts have how much money, what date they deposited or withdrew money, how much money there is in all the accounts. The only thing is, at the bank, the accounts have names you recognize. My prediction is that in order to legitimize Bitcoin, there will need to be trusted banking institutions (with controls and regulations) who associate the masked Bitcoin account number with a name and address (as is happening right now at Coinbase and other formerly popular Bitcoin exchanges). Coinbase will become the first bank of Bitcoin! There will however always be those how don’t take their Bitcoin to the bank and effectively keep their Bitcoin “in their mattress”…so no one will ever know their name. Regardless, the Global Accounting Ledger will always keep track of how much is under their mattress based on their masked account number, instead of their name.
So to round out my above ramblings
• Bitcoin really will form the basis for the first potential cash based global accounting system. Maybe Google can host it. Maybe none of us will have bank accounts or need to file tax returns….they will all be stored on GoogleBank and be measured in Bitcoin. We won’t have to file tax returns as the IRS will just access or GoogleBank account. Gone are the days of Quickbooks and MYOB.
• So what about Fort Knox? Well…the Bitcoin community will be just as strong as the current country based communities that issue fiat currency. It is all in what you agree on and believe in…..but remember, there is no gold at Fort Knox!
• Who got all the first Bitcoins then? Good question! You need to go read up on bitcoin “mining”. It is not unlike the first miners that mined for gold.
• And settling national debt then? Well…not sure Bitcoin will solve that, but a Global Accounting Ledger in one Bitcoin currency will sure bring transparency and simplicity to who owes who what?!!
• Then do away with interest rates and unfair trades? Not at all! Unfair trades will always be there as idiots are born every day. The common currency and global ledger will just allow for things to be priced more efficiently without having to account for exchange rates. Interest rates I’m sure will always be as they are a just a cost of giving something to somebody for a period of time and expecting it back…..theoretically an unfair trade when talking about thousands of days vs. infinity.
For how Bitcoin actually works, how to get a wallet and how the Global Accounting Ledger is copied and validated by the users on the network (aka – no different than a clearing house….arguably more reliable)……I suggest you don’t wait a year to find out. Bitcoin is the future…….get your wallet now!
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