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Few more resources:
submitted by Programming-Help to Programming_Languages [link] [comments]

[JOB] translation of FindBitcoin.cash paper wallet text (easy, pays in Bitcoin Cash)

Looking for translators of the FindBitcoin.cash paper wallet text from English to other languages.
See this image of the paper wallet. As you can see, it's a minimal amount of text (couple of sentences/phrases).
The reward is up to $5, payable in Bitcoin Cash (BCH) for each completed, accepted new translation. Read on for the expected process and see bottom for the languages I'm looking for most urgently. See also the replies in this thread and this other one for ongoing activity.
HOW TO TRANSLATE
Download the generic English translation file (.po format) for translators:
https://glot.io/snippets/fczsttvjb3
What you need to do:
You will get a $2 tip in Bitcoin Cash (BCH) from me if it looks complete and reasonably well done (i.e. not a badly done machine translation - if you submit bad machine translation you will NOT get paid!)
After your translation has been reviewed and confirmed as good, you'll get another $3 more in BCH.
If everything looks very well done and we can get it reviewed immediately, I'll send you the total amount of $5 in BCH in one payment. But I do need some time to review it (in some cases, finding people who can review it), so payout can take a day or so.
NOTE: Please make sure you aren't duplicating work by checking in this thread if someone has already started on or done your language translation, and announcing your intention to do a new translation.
Please don't waste your and my time doing a translation that's already been done, or by submitting bad automated translations.
Languages most urgently sought (crossed out ones are already done):
Currently in progress:
You are free to offer translations for other languages too. In that case, it is best to ask in this thread beforehand if funding is available. For most mainstream languages it will be no problem.
submitted by LovelyDay to Jobs4Crypto [link] [comments]

The Xtrabytes scam needs to be shut down and the people need to face criminal charges

I came across something the other day that caught my attention. I decided to finally read their first ever post: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=1793468.0 on bitcointalk.org. Until now, I had only looked at the first page or two. Some interesting bits from the first few pages:
1 year and 10 months later, we have no actual proof that he is a real person (at least not who he claims to be). The proof he is a real developer is extremely limited. We have zero proof that he is capable of developing what he claims he has. XBY has been anything but transparent. All 3 of these claims appear to be to entice people into buying into the Xtrabytes scam.
This should have NEVER been done, though it’s not surprising that C-Cex would do something so incredibly stupid. They should have delisted XBY, which would have forced Borzalom to start from scratch and apply for listing on the exchange with a new coin he created. Had they done this, it’s likely this whole scam would have never happened, as he has shown no development skills whatsoever and likely could not have made anything from scratch.
All that is IF it even is the true story. I don’t believe it to be. I believe Borz was in on Bitmox, which is why he had the source code. No chat with C-Cex ever happened, which is why the messages between Borz and C-cex support that are included in the post are plaintext when other bits of info are snippets and screenshots. He didn’t provide a snippet picture because the conversation never happened. There is further proof that it didn’t happen if you look at the language used by both Borz and the support person - they use the same language, which is notable by the overuse of adverbs, such as ‘very’ and ‘perfectly’. Borz typed these messages himself.
No additional code has ever been shown. The new algorithm he claims to have created, Proof of Signature, has never been seen or proven. Given the details, It’s likely that he never did any additional coding after the hard fork and the code is nearly the exact same as when he closed it.
If you care to continue reading, they get called out be being a scam within the first few pages by multiple users. The delays and stalls start almost immediately. Borz has never shown any additional code, as it doesn’t exist.
Some additional links:
This has all been discussed many times and this Bitcoin Talk post does a great job putting all the pieces together.
Here is a post that contains a message from CCR says the patent is all a delay tactic.
Within these posts, there are messages from CCR saying that he’s been selling his XBY. https://imgur.com/a/QtMXi0q
You can find Borzalom‘ real identity, as well as old posts from 3 coins, like Identity, that he copied from someone else and then shut down abruptly out of nowhere. He claims he’s from Hungary, but he had a business registered in Florida. Everything points to him living in Florida. He’s not deaf and he’s not a world class coding god.
It kind of becomes a rabbit hole of sorts, but if you care to read, it’s quite interesting and IMO proves without a doubt XtraBytes is 100% a scam.
Nothing has changed. Borzalom and CCR are criminals. They deserve to be in prison. There is enough proof of XBY being a fraud and conversely no proof their technology exists whatsoever.
XtraBytes needs to be shut down and the people responsible need to face criminal charges, that includes all their mods and team members that KNOW this is a scam, but keep it up because they’re being paid.
submitted by cameron0208 to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

A tour of the Gridcoin wallet

Hey guys, I thought I would put together an in-depth tour of the Gridcoin wallet software for all of our recent newcomers. Here I'll be outlining all the features and functions the windows GUI wallet has to offer, along with some basic RPC command usage. I'll be using the windows wallet as an example, but both linux and macOS should be rather similar. I'll be including as many pictures as I can as embedded hyperlinks.
Edit: Note that since I originally made this there has been a UI update, so your client will be different colors but all the button locations are in the same place.
This is my first post like this, so please forgive me if this appears a little scatter-brained.
This will not cover the mining setup process for pool or solo miners.
When you launch the wallet software for the first time you should be greeted with this screen.

OVERVIEW TAB

After that prompt, you should be left sitting on the main overview tab with several fields on it.
From top to bottom:

SEND TAB

Now onto the other tabs on the left side. Currently we're on the Overview tab, lets move down to the Send tab. This tab it pretty self-explanatory, you use it if you want to send coins, but I'll go over the fields here:
  • Pay To: Enter a valid gridcoin address to send coins too. Gridcoin addresses always start with an S or and R.
  • Label: Enter a label here and it will put that address in your "address book" under that label for later use. You can leave it blank if you don't want it in your address book.
  • Message: Enter a message here if you want it attached to your transaction.
  • Amount: How many coins you want to send.
  • Add Attachment: Leave this alone, it is broken.
  • Track Coins: This doesn't do anything.

RECEIVE TAB

Now down to the Receive tab. Here you should have a single address listed. If you double click on the label field, you can edit it's label.
  • New: Generate a new address.
If you click on an address, the rest of the options should be clickable.
  • Copy: Copy the selected address to your clipboard.
  • Show QR Code: Show a scan-able QR code for the selected address.
  • Sign Message: Cryptographically sign a message using the selected address.

TRANSACTIONS TAB

The Transactions tab is pretty boring considering we have no transactions yet. But as you can see there are some sorting tools at the top for when you do have transactions listed.

ADDRESS BOOK TAB

The Address Book is where all the addresses you've labeled (that aren't yours) will show up.
  • Verify Message: Verifies a message was signed by the selected address.
The rest of the functions are similar to the functions on the Receive tab.

VOTING TAB

Onto the Voting tab. There wont be any polls because we aren't in sync yet.
  • Reload Polls: Pretty self-explanatory, I've never had to use this.
  • Load History: By default, the wallet will only display active polls. If you want to view past polls you can use this.
  • Create Poll: You can create a network-wide poll. You must have 100,000 coins as a requirement to make a poll. (Creating a poll does not consume the coins)
Here's what the Voting tab will look like once you're in sync

CONTEXT BAR

Now onto the context bar menus on the top.
Under File you have:
  • Backup Wallet/Config: This lets you backup your wallet configuration file just in case.
  • Export: You can export your Transactions tab or Address Book in CSV format.
  • Sign message: Does the same thing as on the Receive tab.
  • Verify message: Does the same thing as on the Address Book tab.
  • Exit: Close the wallet.
Under Settings you have:
  • Encrypt Wallet: Encrypts your wallet with a password. (we'll come back to this)
  • Change Passphrase: Allows you to change your encryption password.
  • Options: Opens the options menu. (We'll come back to this)
Under Community you have:
Under Advanced you have:
  • Advanced Configuration: Opens the Advanced Configuration menu. (Not so advanced if you ask me)
  • Neural Network: Allows you to view solo miners project statistics. It will be largely blank if you're not in sync yet.
  • FAQ: Don't touch this, It is broken.
  • Foundation: Don't touch this, It is broken.
  • Rebuild Block Chain: Starts the client syncing from 0. Don't worry, using this will not make you lose coins.
  • Download Blocks: Downloads the latest official snapshot, can help speed up syncing. The download progress tends to sit at 99.99% for a long time, don't worry, it's working.
Under Help you have:
  • Debug window: Opens the debug window. (We'll come back to this)
  • Diagnostics: Don't touch this, it is broken. This has since been fixed. You can use this to see if there is anything wrong with your setup.
  • About Gridcoin: Opens the About Dialog. This gives you your client version and other information.

OPTIONS

Now back to the options menu under Settings > Options.
Here we have the options menu main tab:
  • Pay transaction fee: The transaction fee that will be automatically paid when you make a transaction.
  • Reserve: You can reserve an amount so that it will always be available for spending.
  • Start Gridcoin on system login: Pretty self-explanatory
  • Detach databases at shutdown: Speeds up shutdown, but causes your blockchain file to no longer be portable.
On the Network tab:
  • Map port using UPnP: Attempts to connect to nodes through UPnP.
  • Connect through SOCKS proxy: Allows you to connect through a proxy.
The window tab is pretty self-explanatory.
The Display tab is also pretty self-explanatory, with the exception of:
  • Display coin control features (experts only!): This allows you to have a great deal of control over the coins in your wallet, check this for now and I'll explain how to use it further down. Don't forget to click "Apply".

ENCRYPTING YOUR WALLET

Now that all of that is out of the way. The first thing you'll want to do is encrypt your wallet. This prevents anybody with access to your computer from sending coins. This is something I would recommend everyone do.
Go to Settings > Encrypt Wallet and create a password. YOU CANNOT RECOVER YOUR COINS IF YOU FORGET YOUR PASSWORD.
Your wallet will close and you will have to start it up again. This time when it opens up, you should have a new button in the bottom left. Now if you want to stake you will have to unlock your wallet. Notice the "For staking only" box that is checked by default. If you want to send a beacon for solo mining or vote, you will need to uncheck this box.

GETTING IN SYNC AND ICONS

Before we continue, Let's wait until we're in sync. Depending on your internet speeds, this could take from several hours to over a day or 2. This can be sped up by using Advanced > Download Blocks, but this can still take several hours.
This is what an in-sync client should look like. Notice the green check to the right of the Receive tab. All of these icons give you information when you hover your mouse over them.
The lock
The arrow tells you if you're staking. If you aren't staking, it will tell you why you're not staking. If you are staking it will give you an estimated staking time. Staking is a very random process and this is only an estimate, not a countdown.
The connection bars tell you how many connections to the network you have.
The check tells you if you're in sync.

WHAT IS STAKING?

Now I've said "stake" about a million times so far and haven't explained it. Gridcoin is a Proof of Stake (PoS) coin.
Unlike bitcoins Proof of Work (PoW), PoS uses little system resources, so you can use those resources for scientific work. PoS works by users "Staking" with their balance. The higher the balance, the higher the chance to create, or "stake" a block. This means you need to have a positive balance in order to stake. Theoretically, you can stake with any amount over 0.0125 coins, but in practice it's recommended to have at least 2000 coins to reliably stake.
Staking is important for solo miners, because they get paid when they stake. Pool miners don't need to stake in order to get paid however. So if you want to solo mine, you'll need to buy some coins from an exchange or start in the pool first and move to solo when you have enough coins.
In addition to Research Rewards for miners, anyone who holds coins (solo miners, pool miners, and investors) gets 1.5% interest annually on top of your coins. So it can be beneficial for pool miners to stake as well.
Here is a snippet of what a research rewards transaction looks like from my personal wallet. I have a label on that address of "Payout address" as you can see here.

UTXOS AND COIN CONTROL

At this point you'll need some coins. You can use one of our faucets like this one or this one to test coin control out.
First let me explain what a UTXO is. UTXO stands for Unspent Transaction Output. Say you have an address with 0 coins in it, and someone sends you 10 coins like I've done here. Those 10 coins are added to that address in the form of a UTXO, so we have an address with one 10 coin UTXO in it.
Now we receive another 5 coins at the same address, like so. Now we have an address with one 10 coin UTXO and one 5 coin UTXO. But how do we view how our addresses are split up into different UTXOs?
Earlier we checked the "Display coin control features" box in Settings > Options > Display. Once that's checked you'll notice there's another section in the Send tab labeled "Coin Control Features". If you click the "Inputs" button, you'll get a new window. And look, there's our 2 UTXOs.
All UTXOs try to stake separately from each other, and remember that the chance a UTXO has to stake is proportional to it's size. So in this situation, my 10 coin UTXO has twice the chance to stake as my 5 coin UTXO. Now wallets, especially ones that make a lot of transactions, can get very fragmented over time. I've fragmented my wallet a little so I can show you what I'm talking about.
How do we clean this up? We can consolidate all this into one UTXO by checking all the boxes on the left and selecting OK.
Now pay attention to the fields on the top:
  • Quantity: The total amount of UTXOs we have selected.
  • Amount: The total amount of coins we have selected.
  • Fee: How much it would cost in fees to send all those UTXOs (more UTXOs = more transaction data = more fees)
  • After Fee: Amount - Fees.
  • Bytes: How large the transaction is in bytes.
  • Priority: How your client would prioritize making a transaction with this specific set of UTXOs selected had you not used coin control.
  • Low Output: If your transaction is less than 0.01 coins (I think).
  • Change: What you will get back in change.
  • custom change address: You can set the address you get your change back at, by default it will generate a new address.
So let's fill out our transaction so we end up with 1 UTXO at the end.
In "Pay To:" Just put any address in your wallet, and for the amount put what it has listed in the "After Fee" Field. Just like this.
Notice how we get no change back.
Now click "Send", we'll be prompted to enter our passphrase and we're asked if we want to pay the fee, go ahead and click "Yes".
Now if we go back to the Overview tab we get this funky icon. If you hover your mouse over it, it says "Payment to yourself", and the -0.0002 GRC is the network transaction fee.
(Ignore the first one, that was me fragmenting my wallet)
Now if we look at the Coin Control menu, we can see that we've slimmed our wallet down from 7 UTXOs to 1.
Now why would you want to use coin control?
2 Situations:
  1. UTXOs less than 0.0125 coins cannot stake. So you can combine a lot of tiny, useless UTXOs into 1 bigger one that can stake.
  2. After a UTXO stakes, it cannot stake for another 16 hours. So if you have 1 large UTXO that is big enough to stake more than once every 16 hours, you can split it into smaller UTXOs which can allow you to stake slightly more often.
  3. By default, the wallet will always generate a new address for change, which can make your wallet get very messy if you're sending lots of transactions. Keep in mind that more UTXOs = larger transactions = more fees.
Sidenote - When you stake, you will earn all research rewards owed reguardless of which UTXO staked. However, you'll earn the 1.5% interest for that UTXO. Not your whole wallet.

FORKING

A fork is when the network splits into multiple chains, with part of the network on each chain. A fork can happen when 2 blocks are staked by different clients at the same time or very close to the same time, or when your client rejects a block that should have been accepted due to a bug in the code or through some other unique circumstance.
How do I know if I'm on a fork?
Generally you can spot a fork by looking at the difficulty on your Overview tab. With current network conditions, if your difficulty is below 0.1, then you're probably on a fork.
You can confirm this by comparing your blockhash with someone elses, like a block explorer.
Go to [Help > Debug Window > Console]. This is the RPC console, we can use to do a lot of things. You can type help to get a list of commands, and you can type help [command you need help with] (without the brackets) to get information on a command. We'll be using the getblockhash [block number] command.
Type getblockhash [block number] in the console, but replace [block number] with the number listed next to the "Blocks:" field on the Overview tab.
This will spit out a crazy string of characters, this is the "blockhash" of that block.
Now head over to your favorite block explorer, I'll be using gridcoinstats. Find the block that you have the hash for, use the search bar or just find it in the list of blocks.
Now compare your hash with the one gridcoinstats gives you. Does it match?
If it matches, then you're probably good to go. If it matches but you still think you're on a fork, then you can try other block explorers, such as gridcoin.network or neuralminer.io.
If it doesn't match, then you need to try to get off that fork.
How do I get off a fork?
  1. Just wait for an hour or two. 95% of the time your client is able to recover itself from a fork given a little time.
  2. Restart the client, wait a few minutes to see if it fixes itself. If it doesn't restart again and wait. Repeat about 4 or 5 times.
  3. Find where the fork started. Using the getblockhash command, go back some blocks and compare hashes with that on a block explorer so you can narrow down what the last block you and the block explorer had in common. Then use reorganize [the last block hash you had in common]. Note that reorganize takes a blockhash, not a block number.
  4. Use Advanced > Download Blocks.
  5. If none of this works, you can take a look at social media (reddit/steemit) and see what other people are saying.

CONFIGURATION FILE

Your configuration file depends on your operation system:
  • On Windows: %appdata%\GridcoinResearch\
  • On Linux: ~/.GridcoinResearch/
  • On MacOS: /Users/USERNAME/Library/Application/Support/GridcoinResearch/
And it should look like this.
If you open up your gridcoinresearch.conf, you'll see the default one it generated. Note that if you entered your email earlier, the first line will have your email on it instead of "investor". If you decided you want to solo mine but didn't enter your email when you first started the wallet, go ahead and put your email on the first line in place of "investor". If you're a pool miner, just leave it as "investor".
Next, it's recommended that you use the addnodes on the gridcoin wiki. So our gridcoinresearch.conf will look like this.
A useful line for solo miners is PrimaryCPID=[YOUR CPID]. Sometimes your wallet can pick up on the wrong CPID so it's good to have that in there if you're solo mining.

RUNNING A LISTENING NODE

A listening node is a node that listens for blocks and transactions broadcasted from nodes and forwards them on to other nodes. For example, during the syncing process when you're getting your node running for the first time, you're downloading all the blocks from listening nodes. So running a listening node helps support the network.
Running a gridcoin listening node is simple. All you need to do is add listen=1 to your gridcoinresearch.conf and you need to forward port 32749 on your router.
If you don't know how to port forward, I'd suggest googling "How to port forward [your router manufacturer]".

QUICK LINKS

Gridcoin.us Official Website
Gridcoin.science Unofficial Website
Gridcoinstats.eu Block Explorer
NeuralMiner.io Block Explorer
Gridcoinstats.eu Faucet
Gridcoin.ch Faucet
Gridcoin Wiki
Gridcoin Github
GRCPool
Arikado Pool
And that's all I have for now!
I plan to keep this post up-to-date with changes in the client. So if anyone has any suggestions, have clarifications they want made, or maybe I got something wrong, then please feel free to leave a comment below or PM me!
submitted by Personthingman2 to gridcoin [link] [comments]

Equihash 144,5 is alive and kickin'

Equihash 144,5 is live

Bitcoin Gold has successfully hard-forked to use Equihash 144,5.
https://bitcoingold.org/bitcoin-gold-network-upgrade/
 
Updated full-node Bitcoin Gold wallet was released and could be used some time in advance, making the transition seamless for anyone using this.
 
It's possible to to mine it using EWBF Cuda Equihash Miner v0.3 which has the Equihash 200,9 solver entirely removed now (though it might return at some point).
 
Aside from the 144,5 solver, this new miner also has 96,5 and 192,7 solvers added which can be accessed through the use of a new mandatory --algo argument.
 
A new --pers argument (8 character string) is also added, for coins that use personalization. The personalization is intentional and optional for coins to use (the default variant is otherwise Zcash's) to make it more difficult for attackers to redirect hashpower maliciously; this will be especially important for coins with smaller hashrates, such as Bitcoin Private (which could never reach high hashrates with such low block reward and low value of the coin). Bitcoin Gold uses the "BgoldPoW", Zero Coin uses "ZERO_PoW". Maybe the "BTCP_PoW" will be used for Bitcoin Private personalization? ;-)
 

Expected performance:

(Quotes from the EWBF page I linked to above)
 
96_5 uses ~1.6GB vram
1050ti ~7.5 KS/s
1060 ~13.0 KS/s
1070 ~19.5 KS/s
1080 ~23.5 KS/s
1080ti ~33.5 KS/s
 
144_5 uses ~2.0GB vram
1050ti ~15 S/s
1060 ~23 S/s
1070 ~34 S/s
1080 ~38 S/s
1080ti ~56 S/s
 
192_7 uses ~2.5GB vram
1050ti ~8 S/s
1060 ~13 S/s
1070 ~19 S/s
1080 ~22 S/s
1080ti ~30 S/s
 

Info about Equihash 144,5

Very well-written information about the Equihash 144,5 algo can be found here for anyone quickly wanting to understand what it's all about:
https://forum.bitcoingold.org/t/our-new-equihash-equihash-btg/1512
 
Be sure to read both the original post from MentalNomad and his follow-up in the first comment, as well as the other comments.
 

Is this something for Bitcoin Private?

The need for Bitcoin Private to protect itself against centralization and ASIC's is crucial. That this must happen isn't really open for debate, this is clearly stipulated in the Whitepaper, thus it's in Bitcoin Private's DNA. Question is how, and the Team's answer to this will IMHO play an important part of how the coin is perceived. I'm not exactly alone in believing that a privacy coin per design and concept can't be centralized, it would IMHO disqualify it as a privacy coin.
 
The Bitcoin Private team was very quick to show possible support for Equihash 144,5 by posting snippets of code with needed changes. But they have taken the time to thoroughly discuss any options:
 
[we] tread carefully and hold off on establishing a path forward until we’ve done sufficient due diligence and have rigorously debated every option before us- from staying with the status quo (i.e. Equihash 200,9), to considering other Equihash parameters like 144,5 and 192,7 — to exploring more radical changes like SHA3 and the upcoming ProgPoW.
In truth, we are still not yet finished with that due diligence process, but we believed even an intermediate update would benefit the community, and we have achieved enough consensus within the Core Team to decide that we will not be staying with Equihash 200,9 as the status quo would quickly lead to a scenario where the network hashrate would be dominated by ASICs from one vendor. The majority of us did not see that as conducive to decentralization of the network.
 
IMO the ProgPoW is the most interesting option, long-term. But facts remain that Equihash 144,5 and 192,7 are here now, and are proven in live environments! Other coins has already successfully made the jump. My view is that Bitcoin Private should do the same, even it will only be as an intermediate update while waiting for other solutions like ProgPoW to mature.
 

Questions to the developer team

Could someone who will join in on the developer meeting on Discord today ask:
  1. Have the developers reached a consensus about the need for an imminent PoW change, even if just as an intermediate solution?
  2. What do they think about Bitcoin Gold's (etc) migration to Equihash 144,5? Are there any lessons learned, any conclusions drawn?
  3. What do they think about Equihash 144,5 vs. Equihash 192,7? 192,7 uses significantly more memory, making it even better at ASIC-resistance(?), but will the lower performance be a problem for fast block-turnaround?
 
Please?
;-)
submitted by DynamicMiffo to BTC_Private [link] [comments]

Why Verge Needs DigiShield NOW! And Why DigiByte Is SAFE!

Hello everyone, I’m back! Someone asked a question recently on what exactly happened to XVG – Verge and if this could be a problem for DGB – DigiByte - Here: DigiByte vs Verge It was a great question and there have been people stating that this cannot be a problem for us because of DigiShield etc… with not much explanation after that.
I was curious and did a bit more investigating to figure out what happened and why exactly it is that we are safe. So take a read.

Some Information on Verge

Verge was founded in 2014 with code based on DogeCoin, it was initially named DogeCoinDark, it later was renamed Verge XVG in 2016. Verge has 5 mining algorithms as does DigiByte. Those being:
However, unlike DigiByte those algorithms do not run side by side. On Verge one block can only be mined by a single algorithm at any time. This means that each algorithm takes turns mining the chain.
Prior to the latest fork there was not a single line of code that forced any algo rotation. They all run in parallel but of course in the end only one block can be accepted at given height which is obvious. After the fork algo rotation is forced so only 6 blocks with the same algo out of any 10 blocks can be accepted. - srgn_

Mining Verge and The Exploit

What happened then was not a 51% attack per say, but the attacker did end up mining 99% of all new blocks so in fact he did have power of over 51% of the chain. The way that Verge is mined allowed for a timestamp exploit. Every block that is mined is dependent on the previous blocks for determining the algorithm to be used (this is part of the exploit). Also, their mining difficulty is adjusted every block (which last 30 seconds also part of the exploit). Algorithms are not picked but in fact as stated previously compete with one another. As for difficulty:
Difficulty is calculated by a version of DGW which is based on timestamps of last 12 blocks mined by the same algo. - srgn_
This kind of bug is very serious and at the foundation of Verge’s codebase. In fact, in order to fix it a fork is needed, either hard fork or soft fork!
What happened was that the hacker managed to change the time stamps on his blocks. He introduced a pair of false blocks. One which showed that the scrypt mining algorithm had been previously used, about 26 mins before, and then a second block which was mined with scrypt. The chain is set up so that it goes through the 5 different algorithms. So, the first false block shows the chain that the scrypt algorithm had been used in the recent past. This tricks it into thinking that the next algorithm to be used is scrypt. In this way, he was essentially able to mine 99% of all blocks.
Pairs of blocks are used to lower the difficulty but they need to be mined in certain order so they can pass the check of median timestamp of last 11 blocks which is performed in CBlock::AcceptBlock(). There is no tricking anything into thinking that the next algo should be x because there is no algo picking. They all just run and mine blocks constantly. There is only lowering the difficulty, passing the checks so the chain is valid and accepting this chain over chains mined by other algos. - segn_
Here is a snippet of code for what the time stamps on the blocks would look like:
SetBestChain: new best=00000000049c2d3329a3 height=2009406 trust=2009407 date=04/04/18 13:50:09 ProcessBlock: ACCEPTED (scrypt) SetBestChain: new best=000000000a307b54dfcf height=2009407 trust=2009408 date=04/04/18 12:16:51 ProcessBlock: ACCEPTED (scrypt) SetBestChain: new best=00000000196f03f5727e height=2009408 trust=2009409 date=04/04/18 13:50:10 ProcessBlock: ACCEPTED (scrypt) SetBestChain: new best=0000000010b42973b6ec height=2009409 trust=2009410 date=04/04/18 12:16:52 ProcessBlock: ACCEPTED (scrypt) SetBestChain: new best=000000000e0655294c73 height=2009410 trust=2009411 date=04/04/18 12:16:53 ProcessBlock: ACCEPTED (scrypt) 
Here’s the first falsified block that was introduced into the XVG chain – Verge-Blockchain.info
As you can see there is the first fake block with a time stamp of 13:50:09 for example and the next is set to 12:15:51, the following two blocks are also a fraudulent pair and note that the next block is set to 12:16:52. So essentially, he was able to mine whole blocks - 1 second per block!

The “Fix”

This exploit was brought to public attention by ocminer on the bitcointalk forums. It seems the person was a mining pool administrator and noticed the problem after miners on the pool started to complain about a potential bug.
What happened next was that Verge developers pushed out a “fix” but in fact did not really fix the issue. What they did was simply diminish the time frame in which the blocks can be mined. The attack still was exploitable and the attacker even went on to try it again!
“The background is that the "fix" promoted by the devs simply won't fix the problem. It will just make the timeframe smaller in which the blocks can be mined / spoofed and the attack will still work, just be a bit slower.” - ocminer
Ocminer then cited DigiShield as a real fix to the issue! Stating that the fix should also stipulate that a single algo can only be used X amount of times and not be dependent on when the algo was last used. He even said that DigiByte and Myriad had the same problems and we fixed them! He cited this github repo for DigiByte:

DigiShield

It seems that the reason that this exploit was so lucrative was because the difficulty adjustment parameters were not enough to reduce the rewards the attacker recieved. Had the rewards per block adjusted at reasonable rate like we do in DGB then at least the rewards would have dropped significantly per block.
The attacker was able to make off with around 60 million Verge which equals about 3.6 million dollars per today’s prices.
The exploit used by the attacker depended on the fact that time stamps could be falsified firstly and secondly that the difficulty retargeting parameters were inadequate.
Let’s cover how DigiShield works more in detail. One of the DigiByte devs gave us this post about 4 years ago now, and the topic deserves revisiting and updates! I had a hard time finding good new resources and information on the details of DigiShield so I hope you’ll appreciate this review! This is everything I found for now that I could understand hopefully I get more information later and I’ll update this post.
Let’s go over some stuff on difficulty first then I’ll try giving you a way to visualise the way these systems work.
First you have to understand that mining difficulty changes over time; it has to! Look at Bitcoin’s difficulty for example – Bitcoin difficulty over the past five months. As I covered in another post (An Introduction to DigiByte Difficulty in Bitcoin is readjusted every 2016 blocks which each last about 10 mins each. This can play out over a span of 2 weeks, and that’s why you see Bitcoin’s difficulty graph as a step graph. In general, the hash power in the network increases over time as more people want to mine Bitcoin and thus the difficulty must also increase so that rewards are proportional.
The problem with non-dynamic difficulty adjustment is that it allows for pools of miners and or single entities to come into smaller coins and mine them continuously, they essentially get “free” or easily mined coins as the difficulty has not had time to adjust. This is not really a problem for Bitcoin or other large coins as they always have a lot of miners running on their chains but for smaller coins and a few years ago in crypto basically any coin other than Bitcoin was vulnerable. Once the miners had gotten their “free coins” they could then dump the chain and go mine something else – because the difficulty had adjusted. Often chains were left frozen or with very high fees and slow processing times as there was not enough hash power to mine the transactions.
This was a big problem in the beginning with DigiByte and almost even killed DogeCoin. This is where our brilliant developers came in and created DigiShield (first known as MultiShield).
These three articles are where most of my information came from for DigiShield I had to reread a the first one a few times to understand so please correct me if I make any mistakes! They are in order from most recent to oldest and also in order of relevance.
DigiShield is a system whereby the difficulty for mining DigiByte is adjusted dynamically. Every single block each at 15 seconds has difficulty adjusted for the available hashing power. This means that difficulty in DigiByte is as close as we can get to real time! There are other methods for adjusting difficulty, the first being the Bitcoin/Litecoin method (a moving average calculated every X number of blocks) then the Kimoto Gravity Well is another. The reason that DigiShield is so great is because the parameters are just right for the difficulty to be able to rise and fall in proportion to the amount of hash power available.
Note that Verge used a difficulty adjustment protocol more similar to that of DigiByte than Bitcoin. Difficulty was adjusted every block at 30 seconds. So why was Verge vulnerable to this attack? As I stated before Verge had a bug that allowed for firstly the manipulation of time stamps, and secondly did not adjust difficulty ideally.
You have to try to imagine that difficulty adjustment chases hashing power. This is because the hashing power on a chain can be seen as the “input” and the difficulty adjustment as the corresponding output. The adjustment or output created is thus dependent on the amount of hashing power input.
DigiShield was designed so that increases in mining difficulty are slightly harder to result than decreases in mining difficulty. This asymmetrical approach allows for mining to be more stable on DigiByte than other coins who use a symmetrical approach. It is a very delicate balancing act which requires the right approach or else the system breaks! Either the chain may freeze if hash power increases and then dumps or mining rewards are too high because the difficulty is not set high enough!
If you’ve ever taken any physics courses maybe one way you can understand DigiShield is if I were to define it as a dynamic asymmetrical oscillation dampener. What does this mean? Let’s cover it in simple terms, it’s difficult to understand and for me it was easier to visualise. Imagine something like this, click on it it’s a video: Caravan Weight Distribution – made easy. This is not a perfect analogy to what DigiShield does but I’ll explain my idea.
The input (hashing power) and the output (difficulty adjustment) both result in oscillations of the mining reward. These two variables are what controls mining rewards! So that caravan shaking violently back and forth imagine those are mining rewards, the weights are the parameters used for difficulty adjustment and the man’s hand pushing on the system is the hashing power. Mining rewards move back and forth (up and down) depending on the weight distribution (difficulty adjustment parameters) and the strength of the push (the amount of hashing power input to the system).
Here is a quote from the dev’s article.
“The secret to DigiShield is an asymmetrical approach to difficulty re-targeting. With DigiShield, the difficulty is allowed to decrease in larger movements than it is allowed to increase from block to block. This keeps a blockchain from getting "stuck" i.e., not finding the next block for several hours following a major drop in the net hash of coin. It is all a balancing act. You need to allow the difficulty to increase enough between blocks to catch up to a sudden spike in net hash, but not enough to accidentally send the difficulty sky high when two miners get lucky and find blocks back to back.”
AND to top it all off the solution to Verge’s time stamp manipulation bug is RIGHT HERE in DigiShield again! This was patched and in Digishield v3 problems #7
Here’s a direct quote:
“Most DigiShield v3 implementations do not get data from the most recent blocks, but begin the averaging at the MTP, which is typically 6 blocks in the past. This is ostensibly done to prevent timestamp manipulation of the difficulty.”
Moreover, DigiShield does not allow for one algorithm to mine more than 5 blocks in a row. If the next block comes in on the same algorithm then it would be blocked and would be handed off to the next algorithm.
DigiShield is a beautiful delicate yet robust system designed to prevent abuse and allow stability in mining! Many coins have adopted out technology!

Verge Needs DigiShield NOW!

The attacker has been identified as IDCToken on the bitcointalk forums. He posted recently that there are two more exploits still available in Verge which would allow for similar attacks! He said this:
“Can confirm it is still exploitable, will not abuse it futher myself but fix this problem immediately I'll give Verge some hours to solve this otherwise I'll make this public and another unpatchable problem.” - IDCToken
DigiShield could have stopped the time stamp manipulation exploit, and stopped the attacker from getting unjust rewards! Maybe a look at Verge’s difficulty chart might give a good idea of what 1 single person was able to do to a coin worth about 1 billion dollars.
Here’s DigiByte’s difficulty steady, even and fair:
Maybe our developers could help Verge somehow – but for a fee? Or it might be a good way to get our name out there, and show people why DigiByte and DigiShield are so important!

SOURCES

Edit - Made a few mistakes in understanding how Verge is mined I've updated the post and left the mistakes visible. Nothing else is changed and my point still stands Verge could stand to gain something from adopting DigiShield!
Hi,
I hope you’ve enjoyed my article! I tried to learn as much as I could on DigiShield because I thought it was an interesting question and to help put together our DGB paper! hopefully I made no mistakes and if I did please let me know.
-Dereck de Mézquita
I'm a student typing this stuff on my free time, help me pay for school? Thank you!
D64fAFQvJMhrBUNYpqUKQjqKrMLu76j24g
https://digiexplorer.info/address/D64fAFQvJMhrBUNYpqUKQjqKrMLu76j24g
submitted by xeno_biologist to Digibyte [link] [comments]

Lisk Highlights Weekly roundup March 9th 2019. The week in which a Lisk Sidechain Project became a Founding Member of a Brussels-based Blockchain Organization.

Hello everybody. The LISK project and it's enthusiasts are always busy, and this week past has certainly been no exception.
Seeing is believing, so here is a recap of the highlights and interesting items from the past week on the LISK subreddit and beyond.....
 

Lisk, Hong Kong Future and Costa Rica Past.

Asia Crypto Week is fast approaching (11-17th March) and blockchain/crypto enthusiasts and industry veterans are preparing to gather together, share their knowledge and nurture mass crypto adoption. Among the events taking place on March 15th will be a meetup at the University of Hong Kong catering to the University's Blockchain Club and anyone else that might be in the area and interested in all things blockchain. Lisk is co-hosting the event in collaboration with 9up.io, who are a group of blockchain enthusiasts based in Hong Kong and who also are a prospective Lisk delegate. Max Kordek, Lisk's Co-Founder and CEO, will be the main speaker at this event on the 15th March, as he will be in town from the 10th to 15th for Asia Crypto Week and Token 2049.
Tickets for the event can be secured HERE. Hong Kong has been a strategic position in the blooming Blockchain industry in recent years, so I will be interested to see what emerges from this meetup and indeed Asia Crypto Week as a whole.
 
Now from the future to the past, and the TicoBlockChain 2019 conference in Costa Rica this past month. Lisk Central America have linked us up with a Stylish Montage Video of the event with interview snippets interspersed within. Software Architect, Jake Simmons, represented LISK Central America with his presentation on 'Scaling blockchain horizontally with Lisk'. Jake's presentation took part in the midst of the conference's speaker collection of lawyers, developers, educators, banking executives, investment professionals, their keynotes, panel talks and fireside chats.
For those of us who could not make the trip we have Lisk community member illuciferium to thank for filming Jake's presentation and uploading it to Youtube HERE. You can also see Jake being interviewed at the conference by Ricardo Barquero, Nimiq Community Manager in this VIDEO. Well done all!
 

Lisk Support Adds a Meetup Map.

LISK support and TonyT908 are back with a new way for Liskers to visualise all the upcoming meetups and events related to the project. The Events Map is a more visually exciting way to discover all the upcoming events around the globe rather than reading through reams and reams of text. When you are ready to delve more into the details of a particular meetup then you can visit the official Lisk Events page to read further details.
Special thanks should be given to Global Delegate Team (GDT) for their guidance to TonyT908 and for providing the funds necessary to license to mapping software. Edward Trosclair AKA StellarDynamic came up with the original concept, so he should take a lot of praise also. Great work all round, folks.
 

Lisk Sidechain Project Knows the Key is to Stand Out from the Crowd.

Chief R&D Officer and Co-founder of GNY (bringing Machine Learning to Lisk), Richard Jarritt informed the project's followers on the GNY telegram that "only by having a platform that is the first to crack machine learning on chain is how we can differentiate ourselves from the countless projects in our space". He continued, "I look at the whole crypto space and at the moment having working code is key, that is the drive here".
So on to the coding and Machine learning integration, how is that going? Well, this week Leo Liang, Head of Blockchain for GNY will be presenting the coding solution for how information is read by the machine learning off the chain. The GNY team always has tech meetings on Tuesdays to present the work that has been done the week previously, where they update each other on progress and then set the next task. Upcoming shortly for the team will be a demo of how the read function and Machine learning are running together and moving onto the reply function.
The GNY Github is due to go live by the end of this month, following an important GNY staff conference in London. It's going to be an exciting month and I am really looking forward to it.
 

Lisk Sidechain Project becomes a Founding Member of a Brussels-based Blockchain Organization.

On the 6th of March the MADANA project were one of the 105 companies, startups and organizations that came together to found INATBA. The International Association for Trusted Blockchain Applications (INATBA) which will be a Brussels-based organization working to make blockchain more accessible, safe, and usable for everyone. This was an initiative of the EU commission and the Directorate General for Communications Networks, Content and Technology or "DG Connect", whose responsibility is managing the Digital Agenda across Europe. It is hoped that this will now allow projects in the blockchain and distributed ledger technology eco-system have access to a global forum to interact with regulators & policy makers.
 
Next up for the INATBA is its first General Assembly on 3rd April where the 105 founding members will hopfully be joined by fresh additions to the memberlist. The INATBA website is now live at http://inatba.org and they have a "Join" page which is accepting applications for new members to join Madana and the likes of Iota, Cardano, Gnosis, and the Quant Network for the April 3rd launch!
 
That's it for the recap of the weeks highlights. I hope it brought you up to speed with all the weeks good news.
These highlight posts also go out daily on the….
LISK Highlights exclusive Telegram group
LISK Highlights Twitter
The highlights are also included in my weekly roundup on the LISK Highlights Medium account and the Bitcoin talk forum's LISK thread, so keep an eye out for them on these outlets also.
 
Keep the faith Liskers! 👍
submitted by John_Muck to Lisk [link] [comments]

BEWARE all ICOs and ICO issuers!!!!! Part 1

BEWARE all ICOs and ICO issuers!!!!! Part 1
To see article with images, please visit Medium post.
Luvdub Coin recently made a public announcement for our airdrop and in less than 1 week, received submissions ranging in the thousands despite our intense KYC-AML procedure.
At this time, I felt compelled to write an article due to the alarming frequency of fraudulent activity and stolen data our verification team has witnessed in these past few days.
This article will be broken into 2 posts.
1) Why ICO participants should AVOID ICOs unless they ABSOLUTELY TRUST the issuer.
2)What ICO issuers need to be aware of.
This is by all means not a comprehensive list and I do not suggest that you rely solely on this article to make any decision that may have an impact on your privacy, security, or life. I, nor anyone at Luvdub Coin or Luvdub Nation Inc. can be held responsible for what you do with the information provided. You are the only person who can make sure your data and privacy is safe.
Why ICO participants should AVOID ICOs unless they ABSOLUTELY TRUST the issuer.
It seems that a majority of the stolen data come from Southeast Asia (Vietnam, Thailand, etc.), South Asia/Middle East (India, Pakistan, etc.), Africa, South America, and Russia. This does not mean that other countries aren’t affected but the statistics skew towards these regions.
I IMPLORE you to avoid ICOs unless you absolutely, 100% positively know who you’re dealing with. If you choose to disregard my warnings and would still like to participate in ICOs/airdrops, here are some things to consider.
  1. Just because a site has a Green trust lock to display that they are serving content over TLS (Transport Layer Security) doesn’t mean you should trust the site. All it means is that people from outside the network cannot peer into the information being transmitted. This is still better than having no encryption at all but if the website owner mishandles your information or are outright looking to steal your data, you are SCREWED! Also realize that you can get SSL security (green trust lock/https)for free using a CDN provider.
  2. If you’re going to hand your money/cryptocurrency anywhere, the highest level of authentication is to go with a Positive EV SSL Certificate (Extended Validation Certificate). This means the website owner has to provide their company details to a third party and get authenticated which would then show their name in the URL browser. Bear in mind, the custodians of the site/ICO are still responsible for your funds/personal information. You still must perform your due diligence regardless because having a Positive EV SSL Certificate doesn’t mean that they can’t mess up or steal your data. *Cough* Yahoo *Cough*
  3. Oh, but they have over 20k Telegram members! It must be real! This number means squat! People can buy Telegram users, Facebook likes, Twitter retweets, etc. What really matters is the level of activity on their social media channels. Check their reddit, their BitcoinTalk, their Telegram channel activity. If it appears that the ICO issuer is spamming their own channels with posts and nonsense, then they’re hiding something. Be very wary of ICOs that are constantly updating with a countdown or having casual conversation. When you’re having a busy ICO, your time is limited between development, community management, regulation, legal matters, etc.
  4. But, they have pictures of developers and investors! This is nonsense. Anyone can put up pictures with positions that they feel makes their project looks great. The only real way to tell if it’s a legitimate team is to have an outside source verify their credentials. And no, this doesn’t mean Linkedin with their bought connections but checking any professional licenses or reviewing previous projects. For example, if a Doctor is on the team, I would refer to their country’s agency that provides the professional license to cross reference their name or if they are a developer, I would go and review their previous work. Maybe the ICO company has been incorporated for a few years and can be searched using a government database or the ICO founders have performed several speaking engagements for large crowds.
  5. If they only have a white paper, I would be highly skeptical. Unless their code is open source or they disclose snippets in which you are able to verify, I would be extremely cautious. Don’t let all the fancy images of their “vision” fool you either. Think, if an ICO talks more about the possibilities instead of the product, I would stay away. Show me the product/design!!!
  6. "But I get 25% off if I buy in the first 2 days!" This is a HUGEEEEEEEEE red flag. DO NOT, I REPEAT, DO NOT participate in any ICOs that offer you a huge discount/free tokens at decreasing intervals. That means getting 25% free tokens when you buy on day 1 & 2, 20% free tokens day 3 & 4, 15% tokens day 5 & 6, etc. This is a marketing tactic used to pressure you into purchasing early. Think about it. If their ICO/token is going to be valuable, why would they discount it by so much? If you were buying in bulk(private sale), Ok, maybe that might be a good reason for a percentage of free tokens/discounts but when you’re time bound? You’re dealing with marketers who are going to run away with your money and give you worthless junk in return. DO NOT DEAL WITH THESE PEOPLE.
  7. If an ICO says here’s a little competition, who can be the best!?! The top 5 will get a prize?!?! Stay AWAYYY WITH A TEN FOOT POLE!!!! Who wins in this competition? No one but the ICO issuer because they were able to harness your competitive spirit with your hopes/dreams of being wealthy all while handing you worthless junk. Developers should be focused on their product, not marketing BS just to extract as much value from you. Don’t give away your money. You might as well donate it to charity to make the world a better place.
  8. Any ICO issuer who deals with residents within the European Union must comply with GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation). Essentially, this means that they must require consent from their users, provide users’ with the right to have their data erased, limit data handling, disclose breaches, and a plethora of other rules. If the ICO has no mention of their private practices, STAY AWAY FROM THEM! Even better, see how they handle individuals in their chat groups. Do they show concern for privacy and data? That’s a tell tale sign.
  9. If an ICO is emailing you constantly over and over with little to no substance, STAY AWAY FROM THEM! There is no reason for an ICO to be constantly messaging you if they have no development progress to be discussed or important ICO dates to be publicized. No, a message from the CEO to say hello! or to speak of some grand utopian vision does not cut it. If you get any mail, it should be worthwhile to you and provide ICO participants with new information or the occasional reminder. When you are spammed, this is how ICOs try to blind you with the allure of the “grand vision”. Did you realize you were constantly getting email, notifications, pinned messages, etc.? You NEED to get out. ASAP
  10. If for whatever reason you do believe in an ICO and wish to participate, please protect yourself at all costs. Consider water marking your photo stating that your photo should only be used for whatever ICO URL. Also consider criss crossing lines across the image to prevent scammers from cropping out your text. Do everything in your power to stay safe. Use VPNs, tertiary emails, different BTC addresses or Eth addresses.
I apologize if I turn some people off but data theft has become too rampant within the current cryptocurrency/ICO environment and we had to do something about it. It is our belief that cryptocurrency can help bring individuals out of poverty and maintain honesty in transactions. However, the current activity of stealing data from innocent victims is detrimental to the mass adoption of cryptocurrency and we all must do something together to fix it. Please help spread the word and let us all make a standard together for all ICO issuers and participants to follow.
This has been the first part of my ICO ramble. Check out the second part at What ICO issuers need to be aware of.
GET INVOLVED at www.luvdubcoin.com
Also check out our other sites:
Telegram | Facebook | Github | White Paper | Youtube | Reddit | Twitter | BitcoinTalk | Medium
Security Reminder!
*Always look for the Luvdub Nation Inc. green security trust lock in your browser before submitting any information online.
submitted by luvdubnation to altcoin [link] [comments]

Blowing the lid off the CryptoNote/Bytecoin scam (with the exception of Monero) - Reformatted for Reddit

Original post by rethink-your-strategy on Bitcointalk.org here
This post has been reformatted to share on Reddit. What once was common knowledge, is now gone. You want a quality history lesson? Share this like wildfire.
August 15, 2014, 08:15:37 AM

Preamble

I'd like to start off by stating categorically that the cryptography presented by CryptoNote is completely, entirely solid. It has been vetted and looked over by fucking clever cryptographers/developers/wizards such as gmaxwell. Monero have had a group of independent mathematicians and cryptographers peer-reviewing the whitepaper (their annotations are here, and one of their reviews is here), and this same group of mathematicians and cryptographers is now reviewing the implementation of the cryptography in the Monero codebase. Many well known Bitcoin developers have already had a cursory look through the code to establish its validity. It is safe to say that, barring more exotic attacks that have to be mitigated over time as they are invented/discovered, and barring a CryptoNote implementation making rash decisions to implement something that reduces the anonymity set, the CryptoNote currencies are all cryptographically unlinkable and untraceable.
Two other things I should mention. I curse a lot when I'm angry (and scams like this make me angry). Second, where used my short date format is day/month/year (smallest to biggest).
If you find this information useful, a little donation would go a long way. Bitcoin address is 1rysLufu4qdVBRDyrf8ZjXy1nM19smTWd.

The Alleged CryptoNote/Bytecoin Story

CryptoNote is a new cryptocurrency protocol. It builds on some of the Bitcoin founding principles, but it adds to them. There are aspects of it that are truly well thought through and, in a sense, quite revolutionary. CryptoNote claim to have started working on their project years ago after Bitcoin's release, and I do not doubt the validity of this claim...clearly there's a lot of work and effort that went into this. The story as Bytecoin and CryptoNote claim it to be is as follows:
They developed the code for the principles expressed in their whitepaper, and in April, 2012, they released Bytecoin. All of the copyright messages in Bytecoin's code are "copyright the CryptoNote Developers", so clearly they are one and the same as the Bytecoin developers. In December 2012, they released their CryptoNote v1 whitepaper. In September 2013, they released their CryptoNote v2 whitepaper. In November 2013, the first piece of the Bytecoin code was first pushed to Github by "amjuarez", with a "Copyright (c) 2013 amjuarez" copyright notice. This was changed to "Copyright (c) 2013 Antonio Juarez" on March 3rd, 2014. By this juncture only the crypto libraries had been pushed up to github. Then, on March 4th, 2014, "amjuarez" pushed the rest of the code up to github, with the README strangely referring to "cybernote", even though the code referred to "Cryptonote". The copyrights all pointed to "the Cryptonote developers", and the "Antonio Juarez" copyright and license file was removed. Within a few days, "DStrange" stumbled across the bytecoin.org website when trying to mine on the bte.minefor.co.in pool (a pool for the-other-Bytecoin, BTE, not the-new-Bytecoin, BCN), and the rest is history as we know it. By this time Bytecoin had had a little over 80% of its total emission mined.

Immediate Red Flags

The first thing that is a red flag in all of this is that nobody, and I mean no-fucking-body, is a known entity. "Antonio Juarez" is not a known entity, "DStrange" is not a known entity, none of the made up names on the Bytecoin website exist (they've since removed their "team" page, see below), none of the made up names on the CryptoNote website exist (Johannes Meier, Maurice Planck, Max Jameson, Brandon Hawking, Catherine Erwin, Albert Werner, Marec Plíškov). If they're pseudonyms, then say so. If they're real names, then who the fuck are they??? Cryptographers, mathematicians, and computer scientists are well known - they have published papers or at least have commented on articles of interest. Many of them have their own github repos and Twitter feeds, and are a presence in the cryptocurrency community.
The other immediate red flag is that nobody, and I mean no-fucking-body, had heard of Bytecoin. Those that had heard of it thought it was the crummy SHA-256 Bitcoin clone that was a flop in the market. Bytecoin's claim that it had existed "on the deep web" for 2 years was not well received, because not a single vendor, user, miner, drug addict, drug seller, porn broker, fake ID card manufacturer, student who bought a fake ID card to get into bars, libertarian, libertard, cryptographer, Tor developer, Freenet developer, i2p developer, pedophile, or anyone else that is a known person - even just known on the Internet - had ever encountered "Bytecoin" on Tor. Ever. Nobody.

Indisputable Facts

Before I start with some conjecture and educated guesswork, I'd like to focus on an indisputable fact that obliterates any trust in both Bytecoin's and CryptoNote's bullshit story. Note, again, that I do not doubt the efficacy of the mathematics and cryptography behind CryptoNote, nor do I think there are backdoors in the code. What I do know for a fact is that the people behind CryptoNote and Bytecoin have actively deceived the Bitcoin and cryptocurrency community, and that makes them untrustworthy now and in the future. If you believe in the fundamentals in CryptoNote, then you need simply use a CryptoNote-derived cryptocurrency that is demonstrably independent of CryptoNote and Bytecoin's influence. Don't worry, I go into this a little later.
So as discussed, there were these two whitepapers that I linked to earlier. Just in case they try remove them, here is the v1 whitepaper and the v2 whitepaper mirrored on Archive.org. This v1/v2 whitepaper thing has been discussed at length on the Bytecoin forum thread, and the PGP signature on the files has been confirmed as being valid. When you open the respective PDFs you'll notice the valid signatures in them:
signature in the v1 whitepaper
signature in the v2 whitepaper
These are valid Adobe signatures, signed on 15/12/2012 and 17/10/2013 respectively. Here's where it gets interesting. When we inspect this file in Adobe Acrobat we get a little more information on the signature
.
Notice the bit that says "Signing time is from the clock on the signer's computer"? Now normally you would use a Timestamp Authority (TSA) to validate your system time. There are enough public, free, RFC 3161 compatible TSAs that this is not a difficult thing. CryptoNote chose not do this. But we have no reason to doubt the time on the signature, right guys? crickets
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See these references from the v1 whitepaper footnotes? Those two also appear in the v2 whitepaperth. Neither of those two footnotes refer to anything in the main body of the v1 whitepaper's text, they're non-existent (in the v2 whitepaper they are used in text). The problem, though, is that the Bitcointalk post linked in the footnote is not from early 2012 (proof screenshot is authentic: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=196259.0)
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May 5, 2013. The footnote is referencing a post that did not exist until then. And yet we are to believe that the whitepaper was signed on 12/12/2012! What sort of fucking fools do they take us for?
A little bit of extra digging validates this further. The document properties for both the v1 whitepaper as well as the v2 whitepaper confirms they were made in TeX Live 2013, which did not exist on 12/12/2012. The XMP properties are also quite revealing
XMP properties for the v1 whitepaper
XMP properties for the v2 whitepaper
According to that, the v1 whitepaper PDF was created on 10/04/2014, and the v2 whitepaper was created on 13/03/2014. And yet both of these documents were then modified in the past (when they were signed). Clearly the CryptoNote/Bytecoin developers are so advanced they also have a time machine, right?
Final confirmation that these creation dates are correct are revealed those XMP properties. The properties on both documents confirm that the PDF itself was generated from the LaTeX source using pdfTeX-1.40.14 (the pdf:Producer property). Now pdfTeX is a very old piece of software that isn't updated very often, so the minor version (the .14 part) is important.
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pdfTeX 1.40.14 pushed to source repo on Feb 14, 2014
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This version of pdfTeX was only pushed to the pdfTeX source repository on February 14, 2014, although it was included in a very early version of TeX Live 2013 (version 2013.20130523-1) that was released on May 23, 2013. The earliest mentions on the Internet of this version of pdfTeX are in two Stack Exchange comments that confirm its general availability at the end of May 2013 (here and here).
The conclusion we draw from this is that the CryptoNote developers, as clever as they were, intentionally deceived everyone into believing that the CryptoNote whitepapers were signed in 2012 and 2013, when the reality is that the v2 whitepaper was created in March, 2014, and the v1 whitepaper haphazardly created a month later by stripping bits out of the v2 whitepaper (accidentally leaving dead footnotes in).
Why would they create this fake v2 whitepaper in the first place? Why not just create a v1 whitepaper, or not even version it at all? The answer is simple: they wanted to lend credence and validity to the Bytecoin "2 years on the darkweb" claim so that everyone involved in CryptoNote and Bytecoin could profit from the 2 year fake mine of 82% of Bytecoin. What they didn't expect is the market to say "no thank you" to their premine scam.

And Now for Some Conjecture

As I mentioned earlier, the Bytecoin "team" page disappeared. I know it exists, because "AtomicDoge" referred to it as saying that one of the Bytecoin developers is a professor at Princeton. I called them out on it, and within a week the page had disappeared. Fucking cowards.
That was the event that triggered my desire to dig deeper and uncover the fuckery. As I discovered more and more oddities, fake accounts, trolling, and outright falsehoods, I wondered how deep the rabbit hole went. My starting point was DStrange. This is the account on Bitcointalk that "discovered" Bytecoin accidentally a mere 6 days after the first working iteration of the code was pushed to Github, purely by chance when mining a nearly dead currency on a tiny and virtually unheard of mining pool. He has subsequently appointed himself the representative of Bytecoin, or something similar. The whole thing is so badly scripted it's worse than a Spanish soap opera...I can't tell who Mr. Gonzales, the chief surgeon, is going to fuck next.
At the same time as DStrange made his "fuck me accidental discovery", another Bitcointalk account flared up to also "accidentally discover this weird thing that has randomly been discovered": Rias. What's interesting about both the "Rias" and "DStrange" accounts are their late 2013 creation date (October 31, 2013, and December 23, 2013, respectively), and yet they lay dormant until suddenly, out of the blue, on January 20th/21st they started posting. If you look at their early posts side by side you can even see the clustering: Rias, DStrange.
At any rate, the DStrange account "discovering" Bytecoin is beyond hilarious, especially with the Rias account chiming in to make the discovery seem natural. Knowing what we unmistakably do about the fake CryptoNote PDF dates lets us see this in a whole new light.
Of course, as has been pointed out before, the Bytecoin website did not exist in its "discovered" form until sometime between November 13, 2013 (when it was last captured as this random picture of a college girl) and February 25, 2014 (when it suddenly had the website on it as "discovered"). This can be confirmed by looking at the captures on Wayback Machine: https://web.archive.org/web/*/http://bytecoin.org
The CryptoNote website, too, did not exist in its current form until after October 20, 2013, at which time it was still the home of an encrypted message project by Alain Meier, a founding member of the Stanford Bitcoin Group and co-founder of BlockScore. This, too, can be confirmed on Wayback Machine: https://web.archive.org/web/*/http://cryptonote.org
~It's hard to ascertain whether Alain had anything to do with CryptoNote or Bytecoin. It's certainly conceivable that the whitepaper was put together by him and other members of the Stanford Bitcoin Group, and the timeline fits, given that the group only formed around March 2013. More info on the people in the group can be found on their site, and determining if they played a role is something you can do in your own time.~
Update: Alain Meier posted in this thread, and followed it up with a Tweet, confirming that he has nothing to do with CryptoNote and all the related...stuff.

Batshit Insane

The Bytecoin guys revel in creating and using sockpuppet accounts. Remember that conversation where "Rias" asked who would put v1 on a whitepaper with no v2 out, and AlexGR said "a forward looking individual"? The conversation took place on May 30, and was repeated verbatim by shill accounts on Reddit on August 4 (also, screenshot in case they take it down).
Those two obvious sockpuppet/shill accounts also take delight in bashing Monero in the Monero sub-reddit (here are snippets from WhiteDynomite and cheri0). Literally the only thing these sockpuppets do, day in and day out, is make the Bytecoin sub-reddit look like it's trafficked, and spew angry bullshit all over the Monero sub-reddit. Fucking batshit insane - who the fuck has time for that? Clearly they're pissy that nobody has fallen for their scam. Oh, and did I mention that all of these sockpuppets have a late January/early February creation date? Because that's not fucking obvious at all.
And let's not forget that most recently the sockpuppets claimed that multi-sig is "a new revolutionary technology, it was discovered a short time ago and Bytecoin already implemented it". What the actual fuck. If you think that's bad, you're missing out on the best part of all: the Bytecoin shills claim that Bytecoin is actually Satoshi Nakamoto's work. I'm not fucking kidding you. For your viewing pleasure...I present to you...the Bytecoin Batshit Insane Circus:
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https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=512747.msg8354977#msg8354977
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Seriously. Not only is this insulting as fuck to Satoshi Nakamoto, but it's insulting as fuck to our intelligence. And yet the fun doesn't stop there, folks! I present to you...the centerpiece of this Bytecoin Batshit Insane Circus exhibit...
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Of course! How could we have missed it! The clues were there all along! The CryptoNote/Bytecoin developers are actually aliens! Fuck me on a pogostick, this is the sort of stuff that results in people getting committed to the loony bin.
One last thing: without doing too much language analysis (which is mostly supposition and bullshit), it's easy to see common grammar and spelling fuck ups. My personal favorite is the "Is it true?" question. You can see it in the Bytecoin thread asking if it's Satoshi's second project, in the Monero thread asking if the Monero devs use a botnet to fake demand, and in the Dashcoin thread confirming the donation address (for a coin whose only claim is that they copy Bytecoin perfectly, what the fuck do they need donations for??).

Layer After Layer

One of the things that happened soon after the Bytecoin "big reveal" was a string of forks popping up. The first was Bitmonero on April 18. Fantomcoin was launched May 6. Quazarcoin was launched May 8. HoneyPenny was announced on April 21, although only launched as Boolberry on May 17. duckNote was launched on May 30. MonetaVerde as launched June 17.
Now for some reason unbeknownst to anyone with who isn't a retarded fuckface, the Bytecoin code was pushed up to SourceForge on 08/04/2014 (the "Registered" date is at the bottom of the page). I have no idea why they did this, maybe it's to try and lend credence to their bullshit story (oh hey, look how old Bytecoin is, it's even on Sourceforge!)
Coincidentally, and completely unrelated (hurr durr), Quazarcoin, Fantomcoin, and Monetaverde are all also on Sourceforge. This gives us a frame of reference and a common link between them - it's quite clear that at least these three are run by the same team as CryptoNote. There is further anecdotal evidence that can be gathered by looking at the shill posts in the threads (especially the way the Moneteverda shills praise merge mining, in a way that is nearly fucking indistinguishable from the Bytecoin praise for multi-sig technology).
QuazarCoin is a special case and deserves a little attention. Let's start with OracionSeis, who launched it. He's well known on Bitcointalk for selling in-game currencies. In that same thread you'll notice this gem right at the end from Fullbuster: "Hey,OracionSeis is no longer under my use so please https://bitcointa.lk/threads/selling-most-of-the-game-currencies.301540/#post-5996983 come into this thread! thank you !" Click through to his new link and Fullbuster clarifies: "Hello, I may look new around here but i've sold my first account and created new one and i have an intention to keep the same services running as my first account did." So now that we know that OracionSeis is a fucking bought account, we can look at his actions a little more critically.
On May 7, just when Monero was being taken back by the community (see below), OracionSeis out of the blue decided to take it overelaunch it himself. This included a now-defunct website at monero.co.in, and a since-abandoned Github. The community pushed back hard, true to form, with hard-hitting statements such as "To reiterate, this is not the original devs, and thus not a relaunch. OP, fuck you for trying this. This should warrant a ban." A man after my own heart. OracionSeis caved and decided to rename it to...QuazarCoin, which launched on May 8. To recap: bought account, launched by trying to "relaunch" Monero, got fucked up, renamed it to QuazarCoin. Clearly and undeniably goes in our pile of fuckface coins.
The other three are a little more interesting. Let's start with ~fuckNote~duckNote. It's hard to say if duckNote is a CryptoNote/Bytecoin project. The addition of the HTML based wallet is a one-trick pony, a common thread among most of the CryptoNote/Bytecoin controlled coins, but that could also be the result of a not-entirely-retarded developer. Given the shill posts in the duckNote thread I'm going to flag it as possibly-controlled-by-the-fuckface-brigade.
And now we come to ~HoneyPenny~ ~MoneyPenny~ ~HoneyBerry~ ~Boolean~ Boolberry. This is an interesting one. This was "pre-announced" on April 21, although it was only released with the genesis block on May 17. This puts it fourth in line, after Fantomcoin and Quazarcoin, although fucktarded proponents of the shittily-named currency insist that it was launched on April 21 because of a pre-announcement. Fucking rejects from the Pool of Stupidity, some of them. At any rate, "cryptozoidberg" is the prolific coder that churned out a Keccak-derived PoW (Wild Keccak) in a month, and then proceeded to add completely fucking retarded features like address aliasing that requires you to mine a block to get an address (lulz) and will never cause any issues when "google" or "obama" or "zuckerberg" want their alias back. Namecoin gets around this by forcing you to renew every ~200 - 250 days, and besides, nobody is making payments to microsoft.bit. This aliasing system is another atypical one-trick-pony that the CryptoNote developers push out and claim is monumental and historical and amazing.
There's also the matter of cryptozoidberg's nickname. In the Bytecoin code there's the BYTECOIN_NETWORK identifiert, which according to the comment is "Bender's nightmare" (hurr durr, such funny, 11100111110001011011001210110110 has a 2 in it). Now this may be a little bit of conjecture, yo, but the same comment appears twice in the "epee" contributed library, once in the levin signature, and again in the portable storage signature. The contexts are so disconnected and different that it would be a fucking stretch to imagine that the same person did not write both of these. We can also rule out this being a Bytecoin-specific change, as the "Bender's nightmare" comments exist in the original epee library on githubw (which is completely unused anywhere on the planet except in Bytecoin, most unusual for a library that has any usefulness, and was first committed to github on February 9, 2014).
We know from the copyright that Andrey N. Sabelnikov is the epee author, and we can say with reasonable certainty that he was involved in Bytecoin's creation and is the dev behind Boolberry. Sabelnikov is quite famous - he wrote the Kelihos botnet code and worked at two Russian security firms, Microsoft took him to court for his involvement (accusing him of operating the botnet as well), and then settled with him out of court on the basis of him not running the botnet but just having written the code. Kelihos is a botnet that pumped out online pharmacy spam (you know the fucking annoying "Y-ou Ne3D Vi-4Gra!?" emails? those.) so it's good to see he transitioned from that to a cryptocurrency scam. Regardless of BBR's claim to have "fixed" CryptoNote's privacy (and the fake fight on Bitcointalk between the "Bytecoin devs" and cryptozoidberg), it's clear that the link between them is not transparent. BBR is either the brainchild of a spam botnet author that worked on Bytecoin, or it's the CryptoNote developers trying to have one currency distanced from the rest so that they have a claim for legitimacy. I think it's the second one, and don't want to enter into a fucking debate about it. Make up your own mind.
Which brings us to the oddest story of the bunch: Bitmonero. It's pretty clear, given its early launch date and how unfamiliar anyone was with creating a genesis block or working in completely undocumented code, that thankful_for_today is/was part of the CryptoNote developers. He made a fatal error, though: he thought (just like all the other cryptocurrencies) that being "the dev" made him infallible. Ya know what happened? He tried to force his ideas, the community politely said "fuck you", and Bitmonero was forked into Monero, which is leading the pack of CryptoNote-based coins today. Let me be perfectly fucking clear: it doesn't matter that the Bytecoin/CryptoNote developers know their code and can push stuff out, and it doesn't matter that Sabelnikov can shovel bullshit features into his poorly named cryptocurrency, and it doesn't matter that Monetaverde is "green" and has "merged mining". Nobody working behind these cryptocurrencies is known in the cryptocurrency community, and that alone should be a big fucking red flag. Monero is streets ahead, partly because of the way they're developing the currency, but mostly because the "core devs" or whatever they're called are made up of reasonably well-known people. That there are a bunch of them (6 or 7?) plus a bunch of other people contributing code means that they're sanity checking each other.
And, as we saw, this has fucking infuriated the Bytecoin/CryptoNote developers. They're so angry they waste hours and hours with their Reddit accounts trawling the Monero sub-reddit, for what? Nobody has fallen for their scam, and after my revelation today nobody fucking will. Transparency wins, everything else is bullshit.
As pointed out by canonsburg, when the Bytecoin/CryptoNote people realised they'd lost the fucking game, they took a "scorched earth" approach. If they couldn't have the leading CryptoNote coin...they'd fucking destroy the rest by creating a shit-storm of CryptoNote coins. Not only did they setup a thread with "A complete forking guide to create your own CryptoNote currency", but they even have a dedicated website with a fuckton of JavaScript. Unfortunately this plan hasn't worked for them, because they forgot that nobody gives a fuck, and everyone is going to carry on forking Bitcoin-based coins because of the massive infrastructure and code etc. that works with Bitcoin-based coins.
There are a bunch of other useless CryptoNote coins, by the way: Aeon, Dashcoin, Infinium-8, OneEvilCoin. We saw earlier that Dashcoin is probably another CryptoNote developer driven coin. However, this entire group is not really important enough, nor do they have enough potential, for me to give a single fuck, so make up your own mind. New CryptoNote coins that pop up should be regarded with the utmost caution, given the bullshit capabilities that we've already seen.

All Tied Up in a Bow

I want to cement the relationship between the major CryptoNote shitcoins. I know that my previous section had a lot of conjecture in it, and there's been some insinuation that I'm throwing everyone under the bus because I'm raging against the machine. That's not my style. I'm more of a Katy Perry fan..."you're going to hear me roar". There were some extra links I uncovered during my research, and I lacked the time to add it to this post. Thankfully a little bit of sleep and a can of Monster later have given me the a chance to add this. Let's start with an analysis of the DNS records of the CN coins.
If we look at the whois and DNS records for bytecoin.org, quazarcoin.org, fantomcoin.org, monetaverde.org, cryptonote.org, bytecoiner.org, cryptonotefoundation.org, cryptonotestarter.org, and boolberry.com, we find three common traits, from not-entirely-damming to oh-shiiiiiiit:
  1. There's a lot of commonality with the registrar (NameCheap for almost all of them), the DNS service (HurricaneElectric's Free DNS or NameCheap's DNS), and with the webhost (LibertyVPS, QHosteSecureFastServer.com, etc.)
  2. All of the CN domains use WhoisGuard or similar private registration services.
  3. Every single domain, without exception, uses Zoho for email. The only outlier is bitmonero.org that uses Namecheap's free email forwarding, but it's safe to disregard this as the emails probably just forward to the CryptoNote developers' email.
The instinct may be to disregard this as a fucking convenient coincidence. But it isn't: Zoho used to be a distant second go Google Apps, but has since fallen hopelessly behind. Everyone uses Google Apps or they just use mail forwarding or whatever. With the rest of the points as well, as far-fetched as the link may seem, it's the combination that is unusual and a dead giveaway of the common thread. Just to demonstrate that I'm not "blowing shit out of proportion" I went and checked the records for a handful of coins launched over the past few months to see what they use.
darkcoin.io: mail: Namecheap email forwarding, hosting: Amazon AWS, open registration through NameCheap monero.cc: mail: mail.monero.cc, hosting: behind CloudFlare, open registration through Gandi xc-official.com: mail: Google Apps, hosting: MODX Cloud, hidden registration (DomainsByProxy) through GoDaddy blackcoin.io: mail: Namecheap email forwarding, hosting: behind BlackLotus, open registration through NameCheap bitcoindark.org: mail: no MX records, hosting: Google User Content, open registration through Wix viacoin.org: mail: mx.viacoin.org, hosting: behind CloudFlare, closed registration (ContactPrivacy) through Hostnuke.com neutrinocoin.org: mail: HostGator, hosting: HostGator, open registration through HostGator
There's no common thread between them. Everyone uses different service providers and different platforms. And none of them use Zoho.
My next check was to inspect the web page source code for these sites to find a further link. If you take a look at the main CSS file linked in the source code for monetaverde.org, fantomcoin.org, quazarcoin.org, cryptonotefoundation.org, cryptonote-coin.org, cryptonote.org, bitmonero.org, and bytecoiner.org, we find a CSS reset snippet at the top. It has a comment at the top that says "/* CSS Reset /", and then where it resets/sets the height it has the comment "/ always display scrollbars */". Now, near as I can find, this is a CSS snipped first published by Jake Rocheleau in an article on WebDesignLedger on October 24, 2012 (although confusingly Google seems to think it appeared on plumi.de cnippetz first, but checking archive.org shows that it was only added to that site at the beginning of 2013). It isn't a very popular CSS reset snippet, it got dumped in a couple of gists on Github, and translated and re-published in an article on a Russian website in November, 2012 (let's not go full-blown conspiritard and assume this links "cryptozoidberg" back to this, he's culpable enough on his own).
It's unusual to the point of being fucking impossible for one site to be using this, let alone a whole string of supposedly unrelated sites. Over the past few years the most popular CSS reset scripts have been Eric Meyer's "Reset CSS", HTML5 Doctor CSS Reset, Yahoo! (YUI 3) Reset CSS, Universal Selector ‘’ Reset, and Normalize.css, none of which contain the "/ CSS Reset /" or "/ always display scrollbars */" comments.
You've got to ask yourself a simple question: at what point does the combination of all of these fucking coincidental, completely unusual elements stop being coincidence and start becoming evidence of a real, tenable link? Is it possible that bytecoin.org, quazarcoin.org, fantomcoin.org, monetaverde.org, cryptonote.org, bytecoiner.org, cryptonotefoundation.org, cryptonotestarter.org, and boolberry.com just happen to use similar registrars/DNS providers/web hosts and exactly the fucking same wildly unpopular email provider? And is it also possible that monetaverde.org, fantomcoin.org, quazarcoin.org, cryptonotefoundation.org, cryptonote-coin.org, cryptonote.org, and bytecoin.org just happen to use the same completely unknown, incredibly obscure CSS reset snippet? It's not a conspiracy, it's not a coincidence, it's just another piece of evidence that all of these were spewed out by the same fucking people.

The Conclusion of the Matter

Don't take the last section as any sort of push for Monero. I think it's got potential (certainly much more than the other retarded "anonymous" coins that "developers" are popping out like street children from a cheap ho), and I hold a bit of XMR for shits and giggles, so take that tacit endorsement with a pinch of fucking salt.
The point is this: Bytecoin's 82% premine was definitely the result of a faked blockchain. CryptoNote's whitepaper dates were purposely falsified to back up this bullshit claim. Both Bytecoin and CryptoNote have perpetuated this scam by making up fake website data and all sorts. They further perpetuate it using shill accounts, most notably "DStrange" and "Rias" among others.
They launched a series of cryptocurrencies that should be avoided at all cost: Fantomcoin, Quazarcoin, and Monetaverde. They are likely behind duckNote and Boolberry, but fuck it, it's on your head if you want to deal with scam artists and botnet creators.
They developed amazing technology, and had a pretty decent implementation. They fucked themselves over by being fucking greedy, being utterly retarded, being batshit insane, and trying to create legitimacy where there was none. They lost the minute the community took Monero away from them, and no amount of damage control will save them from their own stupidity.
I expect there to be a fuck-ton of shills posting in this thread (and possibly a few genuine supporters who don't know any better). If you want to discuss or clarify something, cool, let's do that. If you want to have a protracted debate about my conjecture, then fuck off, it's called conjecture for a reason you ignoramus. I don't really give a flying fuck if I got it right or wrong, you're old and ugly enough to make up your own mind.
tl;dr - CryptoNote developers faked dates in whitepapers. Bytecoin faked dates in fake blockchain to facilitate an 82% premine, and CryptoNote backed them up. Bytecoin, Fantomcoin, Quazarcoin, Monetaverde, Dashcoin are all from the same people and should be avoided like the fucking black plague. duckNote and Boolberry are probably from them as well, or are at least just fucking dodgy, and who the fuck cares anyway. Monero would have been fucking dodgy, but the community saved it. Make your own mind up about shit and demand that known people are involved and that there is fucking transparency. End transmission.
Just a reminder that if you found this information useful, a little donation would go a long way. Bitcoin address is 1rysLufu4qdVBRDyrf8ZjXy1nM19smTWd.
submitted by OsrsNeedsF2P to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Buona spiegazione di meltdown & spectre.

Tl;dr: Ci sono due bug nella gestione di memoria di tutte le CPU in uso da 20 anni a questa parte. Il loro effetto è di permettere ad un processo in stato non privilegiato di leggere la memoria del kernel (Meltdown) e/o di un altro processo (Spectre). Questo si può usare (ad esempio) per fare un keylogger e leggere password, # di carta di credito etc. mentre vengono scritti. I possibili exploit funzionano su tutti i sistemi operativi (sì, anche sui telefoni, e sui dispositivi IOT, e sugli embedded), ipervisori (sì, anche cross-domain) e da ogni tipo di userspace - in particolare al momento è possibile farlo da uno snippet javascript che giri nella finestra di un browser. Non riesco a immaginare un motivo per cui non si possa fare da PHP, che so, in un plugin di wordpress. Le patch, che non sono ancora state messe in distribuzione generale, sono efficaci solo contro Meltdown (Spectre è più difficile da sfruttare, per fortuna, ma è anche capito peggio). Non solo, ma rallentano le prestazioni (fino al 20% in alcuni benchmark di postgres) e aumentano l'uso della CPU (un cloud provider ha visto la CPU post-patch raddoppiare).
Buon 20181.
1) Primo tentativo di aggiornare il kernel di una VM (presumibilmente con la patch anti-Meltdown). Risultato: VM non-bootabile. Groan.
*"By now, most of you have probably already heard of the biggest disaster in the history of IT – Meltdown and Spectre security vulnerabilities which affect all modern CPUs, from those in desktops and servers, to ones found in smartphones. Unfortunately, there's much confusion about the level of threat we're dealing with here, because some of the impacted vendors need reasons to explain the still-missing security patches. But even those who did release a patch, avoid mentioning that it only partially addresses the threat. And, there's no good explanation of these vulnerabilities on the right level (not for developers), something that just about anyone working in IT could understand to make their own conclusion. So, I decided to give it a shot and deliver just that.
First, some essential background. Both vulnerabilities leverage the "speculative execution" feature, which is central to the modern CPU architecture. Without this, processors would idle most of the time, just waiting to receive I/O results from various peripheral devices, which are all at least 10x slower than processors. For example, RAM – kind of the fastest thing out there in our mind – runs at comparable frequencies with CPU, but all overclocking enthusiasts know that RAM I/O involves multiple stages, each taking multiple CPU cycles. And hard disks are at least a hundred times slower than RAM. So, instead of waiting for the real result of some IF clause to be calculated, the processor assumes the most probable result, and continues the execution according to the assumed result. Then, many cycles later, when the actual result of said IF is known, if it was "guessed" right – then we're already way ahead in the program code execution path, and didn't just waste all those cycles waiting for the I/O operation to complete. However, if it appears that the assumption was incorrect - then, the execution state of that "parallel universe" is simply discarded, and program execution is restarted back from said IF clause (as if speculative execution did not exist). But, since those prediction algorithms are pretty smart and polished, more often than not the guesses are right, which adds significant boost to execution performance for some software. Speculative execution is a feature that processors had for two decades now, which is also why any CPU that is still able to run these days is affected.
Now, while the two vulnerabilities are distinctly different, they share one thing in common – and that is, they exploit the cornerstone of computer security, and specifically the process isolation. Basically, the security of all operating systems and software is completely dependent on the native ability of CPUs to ensure complete process isolation in terms of them being able to access each other's memory. How exactly is such isolation achieved? Instead of having direct physical RAM access, all processes operate in virtual address spaces, which are mapped to physical RAM in the way that they do not overlap. These memory allocations are performed and controlled in hardware, in the so-called Memory Management Unit (MMU) of CPU.
At this point, you already know enough to understand Meltdown. This vulnerability is basically a bug in MMU logic, and is caused by skipping address checks during the speculative execution (rumors are, there's the source code comment saying this was done "not to break optimizations"). So, how can this vulnerability be exploited? Pretty easily, in fact. First, the malicious code should trick a processor into the speculative execution path, and from there, perform an unrestricted read of another process' memory. Simple as that. Now, you may rightfully wonder, wouldn't the results obtained from such a speculative execution be discarded completely, as soon as CPU finds out it "took a wrong turn"? You're absolutely correct, they are in fact discarded... with one exception – they will remain in the CPU cache, which is a completely dumb thing that just caches everything CPU accesses. And, while no process can read the content of the CPU cache directly, there's a technique of how you can "read" one implicitly by doing legitimate RAM reads within your process, and measuring the response times (anything stored in the CPU cache will obviously be served much faster). You may have already heard that browser vendors are currently busy releasing patches that makes JavaScript timers more "coarse" - now you know why (but more on this later).
As far as the impact goes, Meltdown is limited to Intel and ARM processors only, with AMD CPUs unaffected. But for Intel, Meltdown is extremely nasty, because it is so easy to exploit – one of our enthusiasts compiled the exploit literally over a morning coffee, and confirmed it works on every single computer he had access to (in his case, most are Linux-based). And possibilities Meltdown opens are truly terrifying, for example how about obtaining admin password as it is being typed in another process running on the same OS? Or accessing your precious bitcoin wallet? Of course, you'll say that the exploit must first be delivered to the attacked computer and executed there – which is fair, but here's the catch: JavaScript from some web site running in your browser will do just fine too, so the delivery part is the easiest for now. By the way, keep in mind that those 3rd party ads displayed on legitimate web sites often include JavaScript too – so it's really a good idea to install ad blocker now, if you haven't already! And for those using Chrome, enabling Site Isolation feature is also a good idea.
OK, so let's switch to Spectre next. This vulnerability is known to affect all modern CPUs, albeit to a different extent. It is not based on a bug per say, but rather on a design peculiarity of the execution path prediction logic, which is implemented by so-called Branch Prediction Unit (BPU). Essentially, what BPU does is accumulating statistics to estimate the probability of IF clause results. For example, if certain IF clause that compares some variable to zero returned FALSE 100 times in a row, you can predict with high probability that the clause will return FALSE when called for the 101st time, and speculatively move along the corresponding code execution branch even without having to load the actual variable. Makes perfect sense, right? However, the problem here is that while collecting this statistics, BPU does NOT distinguish between different processes for added "learning" effectiveness – which makes sense too, because computer programs share much in common (common algorithms, constructs implementation best practices and so on). And this is exactly what the exploit is based on: this peculiarity allows the malicious code to basically "train" BPU by running a construct that is identical to one in the attacked process hundreds of times, effectively enabling it to control speculative execution of the attacked process once it hits its own respective construct, making one dump "good stuff" into the CPU cache. Pretty awesome find, right?
But here comes the major difference between Meltdown and Spectre, which significantly complicates Spectre-based exploits implementation. While Meltdown can "scan" CPU cache directly (since the sought-after value was put there from within the scope of process running the Meltdown exploit), in case of Spectre it is the victim process itself that puts this value into the CPU cache. Thus, only the victim process itself is able to perform that timing-based CPU cache "scan". Luckily for hackers, we live in the API-first world, where every decent app has API you can call to make it do the things you need, again measuring how long the execution of each API call took. Although getting the actual value requires deep analysis of the specific application, so this approach is only worth pursuing with the open-source apps. But the "beauty" of Spectre is that apparently, there are many ways to make the victim process leak its data to the CPU cache through speculative execution in the way that allows the attacking process to "pick it up". Google engineers found and documented a few, but unfortunately many more are expected to exist. Who will find them first?
Of course, all of that only sounds easy at a conceptual level - while implementations with the real-world apps are extremely complex, and when I say "extremely" I really mean that. For example, Google engineers created a Spectre exploit POC that, running inside a KVM guest, can read host kernel memory at a rate of over 1500 bytes/second. However, before the attack can be performed, the exploit requires initialization that takes 30 minutes! So clearly, there's a lot of math involved there. But if Google engineers could do that, hackers will be able too – because looking at how advanced some of the ransomware we saw last year was, one might wonder if it was written by folks who Google could not offer the salary or the position they wanted. It's also worth mentioning here that a JavaScript-based POC also exists already, making the browser a viable attack vector for Spectre.
Now, the most important part – what do we do about those vulnerabilities? Well, it would appear that Intel and Google disclosed the vulnerability to all major vendors in advance, so by now most have already released patches. By the way, we really owe a big "thank you" to all those dev and QC folks who were working hard on patches while we were celebrating – just imagine the amount of work and testing required here, when changes are made to the holy grail of the operating system. Anyway, after reading the above, I hope you agree that vulnerabilities do not get more critical than these two, so be sure to install those patches ASAP. And, aside of most obvious stuff like your operating systems and hypervisors, be sure not to overlook any storage, network and other appliances – as they all run on some OS that too needs to be patched against these vulnerabilities. And don't forget your smartphones! By the way, here's one good community tracker for all security bulletins (Microsoft is not listed there, but they did push the corresponding emergency update to Windows Update back on January 3rd).
Having said that, there are a couple of important things you should keep in mind about those patches. First, they do come with a performance impact. Again, some folks will want you to think that the impact is negligible, but it's only true for applications with low I/O activity. While many enterprise apps will definitely take a big hit – at least, big enough to account for. For example, installing the patch resulted in almost 20% performance drop in the PostgreSQL benchmark. And then, there is this major cloud service that saw CPU usage double after installing the patch on one of its servers. This impact is caused due to the patch adding significant overhead to so-called syscalls, which is what computer programs must use for any interactions with the outside world.
Last but not least, do know that while those patches fully address Meltdown, they only address a few currently known attacks vector that Spectre enables. Most security specialists agree that Spectre vulnerability opens a whole slew of "opportunities" for hackers, and that the solid fix can only be delivered in CPU hardware. Which in turn probably means at least two years until first such processor appears – and then a few more years until you replace the last impacted CPU. But until that happens, it sounds like we should all be looking forward to many fun years of jumping on yet another critical patch against some newly discovered Spectre-based attack. Happy New Year! Chinese horoscope says 2018 will be the year of the Earth Dog - but my horoscope tells me it will be the year of the Air Gapped Backup.”*
1) Primo tentativo di aggiornare il kernel di una VM (presumibilmente con la patch anti-Meltdown). Risultato: VM non-bootabile. Groan.
submitted by MonsieurCellophane to ItalyInformatica [link] [comments]

GAW Miners - Liars, Frauds - A brief recap of what we know.

EDIT: I was asked by a GAW staff member to compile a list of questions the community has with/about GAW, Paybase, etc. Please provide any questions you have below and I'll have them forwarded
EDIT 2: It seems Josh is working on answering the questions I've asked and compiled. We'll see what happens when answers are released.
Hello, in the midst of this public uprising against GAW I'd like to present some facts for those of you who either:
a. Don't know who/what "GAW" is and why they're a scam,
b. Are brainwashed by Garza; those of you who genuinely believe in Paycoin and GAW Miners,
c. Don't quite have all of the information.
Note that I don't have every possible snippet of information out there, I'll just bring up some of the main points and complaints.
Pre-GAW
Ten months ago Garza was first introduced to the Bitcoin community in this post and this post.. From these posts we learn quite a bit of information regarding Garza's past; he offered false business deals to eBay sellers to partner with him. In the first article, we see that after he offered this couple "20% of his total profit" from his mining company and the couple asked for a reasonable counter-offer of $5k/month to pay their bills since they were unemployed, Garza filed a false Significantly Not As Described case on eBay, causing the couple to quite a bit of money and seriously affected their finances. The couple did some research about Garza and found this:
After looking at their old facebook profile, we saw that they were originally DirectTV salesman preying on small rural towns around New England offering people high-speed, internet and other telecom services that these people weren't able to get for whatever reason before. GAW was able to coerce MBI (Massachusetts Broadband Institute) to donate $40,000 to them for helping to bring services to everyone in the communities. Garza promised to build towers and other bullshit in these towns to help provide services, but they never did. At some point even when community leaders (one was David Kulp) repeatedly tried to get in touch with them, they never heard back.
So, it seems Garza has a knack for deceptive practices 'eh? Since the posts are so long and there's a lot to discuss, I'll let you read them and formulate your opinion on Garza. (Thanks to DidHeJust for the links to those threads).
-Early Phases
Originally, GAW showed NO proof of mining at all (not an address, block, pictures of mining hardware, pool usernames, nothing). Later on, during the Hashpoint 'mining' phase, he purchased 5 PH/s worth of mining equipment from Bitmaintech. For the short amount of time Paycoin was available for proof-of-work mining, there were tons of people renting mining rigs in order to get a cut of the "$20 Paycoins." Since the difficulty was fairly low, the prices per TH/s of these miners were very high, making it extremely easy to ROI on them. I'd be willing to bet that GAW rented out a lot of their hashpower for profit. They're currently selling the hardware they have left from this on oneminer.com.
There was also a brief period of time where you were able to purchase hardware from GAW and have it point to a pool of your choosing; however, this didn't account for too large of a portion of the hashpower they claim to have sold.
-Forums
GAW Miners owns a forum created them them, Hashtalk. This forum is heavily censored; if you attempt to inquire about some of GAW's deceptive practices, broken promises, or Paycoin design you'll either be outright banned or shadow banned (your account will remain useable to you, but nobody will be able to see any of your posts). This led to this uncensored discussion thread on Bitcointalk.
- Broken Promises
Promise 1: *"Always Profitable"**
GAW Miners claims that their Hashlets would always remain profitable and the $0.08 fee per MH/s would go down overtime. You know what GAW did instead? They kept their fees the same even when people were receiving only 1 satoshi. That's hardly profitable at all, as it's the minimum amount that they can really pay. So, they decided to move to mining Hashpoints for Paycoin (another broken promise, explained later).
Promise 2: *"Paycoin would launch with a $20 floor"**
This one is interesting. For the three months or so Hashpoint mining was available, Garza claimed that Paycoin would have a $20 floor (essentially that GAW would buy up any coin sold below $20 to keep the market place there or higher). Now, however, they've purged their censored forum of such claims so all that remains are screenshots as proof. Here's a few: https://i.imgur.com/YFXJiKB.png and https://i.imgur.com/HnotyMB.png Paycoin was traded at about $20 for a very brief period of time, but since then it's been dropping steadily, trading at just above $6/ea currently. Garza has done nothing to rectify the situation since.
Promise 3: *Large merchant support on launch**
From this thread we see that Garza promises that:
That’s right, you will be able to shop with Paycoin on the Amazon, Target, Walmart, Macy*s and Best Buy’s online stores.
A journalism website, coinfire.cf, contacted Amazon and the other companies claimed to be partnered with GAW. These companies all denied being affiliated with GAW, Amazon even threatened legal action if this continued. Once the article was published, the coinfire website was mysteriously hacked and the day after GAW threatened legal action. Read more about it here:
https://coinfire.cf/2014/11/22/is-gaw-miners-lying-about-partnerships/ and http://www.scribd.com/doc/248372603/Coinfire-Cease-and-Desist
-Censorship [Developing!!!]
At the moment GAW is taking down videos they've posted where they've made a certain "statement" on their mining.
-Paycoin
Ah, Paycoin. An altcoin plagued by delays and broken promises. Originally set to launch at $20 per coin, falsely leading people into investing money into Hashpoint miners for profit. The things Josh is doing and has done to get people to use Paycoin are laughable, I'd consider it treason against the Bitcoin community. He purchased the domain btc.com for $1,000,000 only to have it redirect to Paybase. Fun stuff 'eh? He's also claimed that his coin would be better than Bitcoin, denouncing it in order to promote his own coin. From code snippets we've seen, Paycoin's "Prime Nodes," part of the PoS system to generate new coins, has the ability to generate coins at a 350% interest rate. These wallets/stakers/controllers/nodes are only able to be controlled by GAW, of course. The code:
int64 nSubsidy = 0; int64 nRewardCoinYear = 0; // creation amount per coin-year if (primeNodeRate == 0) nRewardCoinYear = 5 * CENT; else if (primeNodeRate == 10) nRewardCoinYear = 10 * CENT; else if (primeNodeRate == 20) nRewardCoinYear = 20 * CENT; else if (primeNodeRate == 100) nRewardCoinYear = 100 * CENT; else if (primeNodeRate == 350) nRewardCoinYear = 350 * CENT; nSubsidy = nCoinAge * nRewardCoinYear * 33 / (365 * 33 + 8); if (fDebug && GetBoolArg("-printcreation")) printf("GetProofOfStakeReward(): primeNodeRate=%d create=%s nCoinAge=%"PRI64d"\n", primeNodeRate, FormatMoney(nSubsidy).c_str(), nCoinAge); return nSubsidy; 
Paycoin started off as a coin with a 13,000,000 coin market cap, with two stages. A Proof of Work and Proof of Share. Check this out: https://twitter.com/gawceo/status/532173907718332417 - Garza claims that he "mined" for the 12,000,000 coins he gained, although block one was programmed to give him that much... hah!
Credits to https://gist.github.com/jyap808/3f99de084df18ce325a7 for this;
Block 1. 12 million premine.
343,196 XPY mined during Proof of Work period.
343,196 - 56,889 = 286,307 XPY not mined by GAW Miners
12,343,196 XPY coins mined Total at the end of Proof of Work including pre-mine.
100 - (343196.0 / 12343196 * 100) = 97.22% Premined at the end of Proof of Work
It also seems like Garza stole the logo for Paycoin from https://www.gopago.com/. If you compare it with what's on https://paybase.com/ they're identical.
-Current and Recent Events
It's also known that there was a massive security/data breech during the Paybase launch, which allowed users to see other's balances and personal information https://coinfire.cf/2014/12/31/massive-security-breach-at-paybase/ which is being blamed on a "Cloudflare Caching Issue," however, that excuse makes very little sense.
Currently, people are having trouble withdrawing their Paycoins from Paybase, which GAW is blaming on Authy. Authy's services are functioning fine for all other services, which leads us to believe that it isn't Authy's fault.
When Hashtakers were sold, they would've only been really profitable at the $20 per Paycoin mark. With the current price people are losing money on their investment.
Note: This is somewhat unfinished and I'd like to hear feedback on what I should add and revise.
submitted by iTipBitcoin to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

BEWARE all ICOs and ICO issuers!!!!! Part 1

BEWARE all ICOs and ICO issuers!!!!! Part 1
https://preview.redd.it/ohbp38gkwp311.png?width=600&format=png&auto=webp&s=f730893079a7b5d5fb2462c6e476dfcf182b0bc4
Luvdub Coin recently made a public announcement for our airdrop and in less than 1 week, received submissions ranging in the thousands despite our intense KYC-AML procedure.
At this time, I felt compelled to write an article due to the alarming frequency of fraudulent activity and stolen data our verification team has witnessed in these past few days.
This article will be broken into 2 posts.
1) Why ICO participants should AVOID ICOs unless they ABSOLUTELY TRUST the issuer.
2)What ICO issuers need to be aware of.
This is by all means not a comprehensive list and I do not suggest that you rely solely on this article to make any decision that may have an impact on your privacy, security, or life. I, nor anyone at Luvdub Coin or Luvdub Nation Inc. can be held responsible for what you do with the information provided. You are the only person who can make sure your data and privacy is safe.
Why ICO participants should AVOID ICOs unless they ABSOLUTELY TRUST the issuer.
Avoid ICOs?
Here are some reasons why you might want to reconsider giving away your personal information for some “Airdrops”.
We have the bad, for example:
https://preview.redd.it/p60v3qlswp311.png?width=720&format=png&auto=webp&s=3031fa9a797621b9e5789c9c75de5b38ef2caffe
We have the, what the eff:
https://preview.redd.it/fhuwdwqtwp311.png?width=800&format=png&auto=webp&s=f35508bb5e7b33517f516d93508a93735339878d
Then we have the, that could’ve passed if looked over quickly:
https://preview.redd.it/g75owbkuwp311.png?width=800&format=png&auto=webp&s=4681a334f0621ad18a02d4e49575f254c828248e
The photoshopper:
https://preview.redd.it/e8k8aahvwp311.png?width=540&format=png&auto=webp&s=9c2c5a9392f4b42857db0a0ced5dfb3c195f1c2f
And finally, the artist:
https://preview.redd.it/ei7btsawwp311.png?width=800&format=png&auto=webp&s=2cdb0f93bcea7c7bcfa0b6c21e2f6277b5529d5e
Keep in mind, this is just a few of the fraudulent submissions we have received. It is estimated that somewhere between 30–40% are likely to be stolen data.
It seems that a majority of the stolen data come from Southeast Asia (Vietnam, Thailand, etc.), South Asia/Middle East (India, Pakistan, etc.), Africa, South America, and Russia. This does not mean that other countries aren’t affected but the statistics skew towards these regions.
I IMPLORE you to avoid ICOs unless you absolutely, 100% positively know who you’re dealing with. If you choose to disregard my warnings and would still like to participate in ICOs/airdrops, here are some things to consider.
I can’t be completely trusted!
Just because a site has a Green trust lock to display that they are serving content over TLS (Transport Layer Security) doesn’t mean you should trust the site. All it means is that people from outside the network cannot peer into the information being transmitted. This is still better than having no encryption at all but if the website owner mishandles your information or are outright looking to steal your data, you are SCREWED! Also realize that you can get SSL security (green trust lock/https)for free using a CDN provider.
If I’m going to trust anything, it’s this.
If you’re going to hand your money/cryptocurrency anywhere, the highest level of authentication is to go with a Positive EV SSL Certificate (Extended Validation Certificate). This means the website owner has to provide their company details to a third party and get authenticated which would then show their name in the URL browser. Bear in mind, the custodians of the site/ICO are still responsible for your funds/personal information. You still must perform your due diligence regardless because having a Positive EV SSL Certificate doesn’t mean that they can’t mess up or steal your data. *Cough* Yahoo *Cough*
But they have the Telegram members!
This number means squat! People can buy Telegram users, Facebook likes, Twitter retweets, etc. What really matters is the level of activity on their social media channels. Check their reddit, their BitcoinTalk, their Telegram channel activity. If it appears that the ICO issuer is spamming their own channels with posts and nonsense, then they’re hiding something. Be very wary of ICOs that are constantly updating with a countdown or having casual conversation. When you’re having a busy ICO, your time is limited between development, community management, regulation, legal matters, etc.
But they have so many pictures of developers and investors!
This is nonsense. Anyone can put up pictures with positions that they feel makes their project looks great. The only real way to tell if it’s a legitimate team is to have an outside source verify their credentials. And no, this doesn’t mean Linkedin with their bought connections but checking any professional licenses or reviewing previous projects. For example, if a Doctor is on the team, I would refer to their country’s agency that provides the professional license to cross reference their name or if they are a developer, I would go and review their previous work. Maybe the ICO company has been incorporated for a few years and can be searched using a government database or the ICO founders have performed several speaking engagements for large crowds.
Their paper is white though!
If they only have a white paper, I would be highly skeptical. Unless their code is open source or they disclose snippets in which you are able to verify, I would be extremely cautious. Don’t let all the fancy images of their “vision” fool you either. Think, if an ICO talks more about the possibilities instead of the product, I would stay away. Show me the product/design!!!
But I get 25% off if I buy in the first 2 days!
This is a HUGEEEEEEEEE red flag. DO NOT, I REPEAT, DO NOT participate in any ICOs that offer you a huge discount/free tokens at decreasing intervals. That means getting 25% free tokens when you buy on day 1 & 2, 20% free tokens day 3 & 4, 15% tokens day 5 & 6, etc. This is a marketing tactic used to pressure you into purchasing early. Think about it. If their ICO/token is going to be valuable, why would they discount it by so much? If you were buying in bulk(private sale), Ok, maybe that might be a good reason for a percentage of free tokens/discounts but when you’re time bound? You’re dealing with marketers who are going to run away with your money and give you worthless junk in return. DO NOT DEAL WITH THESE PEOPLE.
But the more I do, the more I get!!!!
Another marketing gimmick. If an ICO says here’s a little competition, who can be the best!?! The top 5 will get a prize?!?! Stay AWAYYY WITH A TEN FOOT POLE!!!! Who wins in this competition? No one but the ICO issuer because they were able to harness your competitive spirit with your hopes/dreams of being wealthy all while handing you worthless junk. Developers should be focused on their product, not marketing BS just to extract as much value from you. Don’t give away your money. You might as well donate it to charity to make the world a better place.
But I can trust them. Can’t I?
Any ICO issuer who deals with residents within the European Union must comply with GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation). Essentially, this means that they must require consent from their users, provide users’ with the right to have their data erased, limit data handling, disclose breaches, and a plethora of other rules. If the ICO has no mention of their private practices, STAY AWAY FROM THEM! Even better, see how they handle individuals in their chat groups. Do they show concern for privacy and data? That’s a tell tale sign.
They keep emailing me. They must really care!
If an ICO is emailing you constantly over and over with little to no substance, STAY AWAY FROM THEM! There is no reason for an ICO to be constantly messaging you if they have no development progress to be discussed or important ICO dates to be publicized. No, a message from the CEO to say hello! or to speak of some grand utopian vision does not cut it. If you get any mail, it should be worthwhile to you and provide ICO participants with new information or the occasional reminder. When you are spammed, this is how ICOs try to blind you with the allure of the “grand vision”. Did you realize you were constantly getting email, notifications, pinned messages, etc.? You NEED to get out. ASAP
Only if you believe
If for whatever reason you do believe in an ICO and wish to participate, please protect yourself at all costs. Consider water marking your photo stating that your photo should only be used for whatever ICO URL. Also consider criss crossing lines across the image to prevent scammers from cropping out your text. Do everything in your power to stay safe. Use VPNs, tertiary emails, different BTC addresses or Eth addresses.
I apologize if I turn some people off but data theft has become too rampant within the current cryptocurrency/ICO environment and we had to do something about it. It is our belief that cryptocurrency can help bring individuals out of poverty and maintain honesty in transactions. However, the current activity of stealing data from innocent victims is detrimental to the mass adoption of cryptocurrency and we all must do something together to fix it. Please help spread the word and let us all make a standard together for all ICO issuers and participants to follow.
This has been the first part of my ICO ramble. For the second part, please visit What ICO issuers need to be aware of.
GET INVOLVED at www.luvdubcoin.com
Also check out our other sites:
Telegram | Facebook | Github | White Paper | Youtube | Reddit | Twitter | BitcoinTalk
Security Reminder!
*Always look for the Luvdub Nation Inc. green security trust lock in your browser before submitting any information online.
submitted by luvdubnation to LuvdubCoin [link] [comments]

Code Snippets - For Easy Site Customizations - YouTube Quickly run PHP with the Code Snippets plugin - YouTube PHP Code Snippets - YouTube 「functions.php」ファイルの直接編集が不要になるプラグイン「Code Snippets」 Wordpress Code Snippets Tutorial  Add Custom PHP and CSS ...

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Code Snippets - For Easy Site Customizations - YouTube

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